Types of Genotype and their Functions in Human Beings
Types of Genotype – A genotype is the set of exact DNA instructions for an individual organism, just the code that runs a software application. The specific DNA of an organism is hereditary from its parents. A phenotype is an complicatedly related concept; it signifies every likely way that the genotype reveals itself in the organism. Phenotypes are different from a tulip’s color to the sound of a particular blue whale’s song to the red blood cell production in the bone marrow of a first-grader.
Biologists have drawn the list of genotypes for specific traits for a range of species. Most famed, possibly, was Gregor Mendel and his pea plants. Human blood types are another recognized list of genotypes. Though, many features make genotyping a complex issue to deal with
The following are types of genotype in humans that an offspring is likely to have based on different genotype combinations of parents.
- AA + AA = AA, AA, AA, AA
- AA + AS = AA, AS, AA, AS
- AA + SS = AS, AS, AS, AS
- AA + AC = AA, AA, AA, AC
- AS + AS = AA, AS, AS, SS
- AS + SS = AS, SS, SS, SS
- AS + AC = AA, AC, AS, SS
- SS + SS = SS, SS, SS, SS
- AC + SS = AS, AS, SS, SS
- AC + AC = AA, AC, AC, SS.
Diverse kinds of blood genotype Red blood cells transport oxygen in the body. It’s this same red blood cells that have antigens and Rhesus factor that define a person’s blood group. The differences in blood groups are owing to the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies. While antigens are placed on the surface of the red blood cells, antibodies are in the blood plasma
Are you aware that there is more than 30 genetics blood group system?
Of all of these 20, only the Rh and the ABO system are used during a blood transfusion. In addition, in the ABO blood system, not all blood groups are well-matched. When mismatched blood groups are combined during a blood transfusion, the results in agglutination.
Hence, before a blood transfusion is carried out, a medical practitioner has to do a cross-matching which is usually the process of deciding whether the blood of a donor is well-matched with the receiver.
When the RBC carry an antigen a, a individual is said to have blood type A. If the RBC transmits antigen b, then the required blood type is also B. Nevertheless, when the blood cells have together a and b antigens, then the person has blood group AB. On the other hand, when your blood cells lack any antigen, then your blood type is O.
- People with blood group O are considered universal donors which means that they can donate blood to all blood groups
- AB+ are universal blood recipients which means that they can receive blood from all blood groups.
- AB- people can receive blood from those with A-, B-, AB- and O
- A+ can receive blood from A+, O+, A- and O
- A- can receive blood from A- and O-
- People with B+ blood types can receive blood donations from those with B+, O+, B- and O
- individuals with blood group B- can receive blood from only two groups: B- and O-.
- If your blood type is O+, you can receive blood from those with O- and O+ blood groups.
- O- can only receive blood from O
Blood type B
– Can either have genotype BB or BO, with an as the antibodies in the plasma and B as the antigens on red blood cells
Blood type A
– Has genotype AA or AO, antigens on the red blood cells are A and b antibodies in blood plasma
Blood type AB
– Blood group AB has genotype AB, antigens A, and B, no antibodies
Blood type O
– Has genotype OO, no antigens on red blood cells but has both antibodies a and b.
Rhesus Rh factor is a protein found in red blood cells. This protein is hereditary, and if you have it you are Rh positive, and if there is absent of protein, then you are Rh negative. A child gets the Rh factor from either parent. Thus, it is vital that pregnant women can get an Rh factor screening test in the verge of their first trimester. Furthermore, if the mother is Rh- then an antibody blood test is done to guarantee that there are no antibodies created due to Rh + blood.
If a mother has a dissimilar Rh factor from that of the baby, then she has to get Rh immune globulin injection in case the mother’s blood ever comes in contact with that of her unborn baby. Having the knowledge that the rhesus factor is vital particularly for pregnant women. This is because when a pregnant woman has a rhesus factor that reverses with that of the unborn baby, it can cause Rh sensitization.
For example, when the blood of a pregnant woman who is rhesus- combines with that of the fetus is rhesus + either during abnormal trauma or when you bleed it bring about the production of Rh antibodies which created complications such as spoiling the baby’s red blood cells. What’s this means is that to avoid problems parents must have the same Rhesus factor
Sickle cell anemia is a diseases caused as a result of gene mutation of the red blood cell. This happens when blood cell are molded as if it were a shaped moon. This disease is hereditary it therefore mean that having this disease would mean you inherited it from both parent. Kid with only a single sort of gene are Said to have the disease trait
– This is the most popular type of sickle cell, and it happens when a child gets copies of the hemoglobin S gene from both parents
– This is also a common type of sickle cell and happens when a child gets the hemoglobin C gene from one parent and hemoglobin S gene from the other parent.
Hemoglobin SB+ thalassemia
– This disease affects beta-globin gene production which outcome is the production of less beta protein which result in reduction in the size of red blood cells
Hemoglobin SB 0 thalassemia
– It is the least common sickle cell, and it involves the beta-globin gene. Other unusual types of sickle cell anemia with fewer severe symptoms include hemoglobin SO, hemoglobin SE, and hemoglobin SD.
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