Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch : Current School News

Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method (PDF)

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ABSTRACT

Starch was extracted from cassava tubers and corn cobs using wet extraction method. Various formulations were developed and hence the optimum quality was obtained. The formulations were gotten from design mixture method using design expert software.

The test carried out on the formulations were determination of PH, and the PH of the adhesive is 6.8, sediment volume, water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power which is fairly comparable. The moisture content of the formulations is 85% and that of the standard is 65-85%

The experimental values of bond strength for different samples were optimized using design mixture method (Minitab software). And result obtained from using this software showed that the bond strength is greatly dependent on the amount of borax that is added to the mixture.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION              i

CERTIFICATION           ii

DEDICATION        iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT        iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS         v

ABSTRACT              viii

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study        1

1.2       Definition of adhesives       2

1.3       Aim and objectives of the study     3

1.4       Statement of the problem  4

1.5       Significance of the study        4

1.6       Scope of the work    4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                 

2.1       History of starch of adhesives          5

2.2       Starch      6

2.3       Description of cassava starch        7

2.4       Description of corn starch      8

2.5       Basic components of starch adhesives/ Classification of adhesives               9

2.6       Chemistry adhesives/principle of adhesion         9

2.7       Bonding process/types of adhesive      10

2.8       Requirements for industrial adhesives/description of starch adhesive           11

2.9       Description of starch adhesive           11

2.10     Response surface methodology         13

2.11     Applications of adhesives        14

2.12     Physical properties of starch/ Chemical properties of starch      15

2.14     Wood adhesives          15

2.15     Characterization of cassava and corn starch     16

2.16     Methods for characterization and results obtained     16

2.17     Components of starch adhesives        18

2.18     Wood adhesive bonding strength evaluation    20

2.19     Evaluation of wood adhesives        22

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                            

3.1       Materials               28

3.2      Equipment used        28

3.3      Preparation of cassava starch        28

3.4      Basic unit operations for cassava  29

3.5     Preparation of corn starch          29

3.6     Basic unit operation for corn        29

3.7     Production process of adhesives     30

3.8     Optimization              30

3.9     Statistical analysis     30

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION                                            

4.1       Result of characterization of the starch       32

4.2       Surface Response and Optimization Analysis   33

4.3       Optimization of the Response          36

4.4      Effect of the ratio of borax, starch and NaOH on the bond strength of the adhesive 38

CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                             

5.1       Conclusion                          41

5.2       Recommendation     42

REFERNCES

INTRODUCTION

Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into market.

Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used as a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.

This technique of bonding adhesive has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used, from history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.

The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesive in wood works and in the production of papyri (i.e a material similar to paper that’s made from papyrus plant).

It was during 19th century that were technology advancement which led to sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G parkins found out that starch could  be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature.

Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported and as such the clamor for adhesive that are locally produced is the primary concern for embarking on this project.

It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn and cassava as the case study or reference study.

REFERENCES

Ahvazi, B., Wojciechowicz, O.; Ton-That, T.M. and Hawari, J. (2011) Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 10505–10516.                                                                         
Akhtar, T., Lutfullah, G. and Ullah, Z. (2011) Ligonsulfonate-phenolformaldehyrde adhesive: A potenstial binder for wood panel industries. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 33, 535–538. 
Anonymous (1982) USDA Forest product, Laboratory Handbook., Chapter 9. 
Benar, P., Gonçalves, A.R., Mandelli, D., Schuchardt, U. (1999) Eucalyptus organosolv lignins: Study of the hydroxymethylation and use in resols. Bioresour. Technol, 68, 11–16. 
Çetin, N.S.and Özmen, N. (2003) Studies on lignin-based adhesives for particleboard panels. Turkish J. Agric. For., 27, 183–189. 
Cornstarch, Everything2.retrieved 2017-06-08. Cornstarch definition of cornstarch by Merriam-webster.com 
Domínguez, J. C., Oliet, M., Alonso, M. V., Rojo, E.and Rodríguez, F. (2013) Structural, thermalandrheological behavior of a bio-based phenolic resin in relation to a commercial resol resin. Ind. Crop. Prod., 42, 308–314. 
Donmez Cavdar, A.; Kalaycioglu, H.and Hiziroglu, S. (2008) Some of the properties of oriented strandboard manufactured using kraft lignin phenolic resin. J. Mater. Process. Technol., 202, 559–563.
Ellaiah, B. Srinivasulu, and Adinarayana, K. (2004) Optimisation studies on neomycin production by a mutant strain of Streptomyces marinensis in solid state fermentation,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 529–534
FAO(1983) Proceedings of the workshop on processing technologies for cassava and other tropical roots and tubers in Africa, November 28th – December 2nd, 1983. 

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