Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method (PDF)


 – Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method – 

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Starch was extracted from cassava tubers and corn cobs using wet extraction method. Various formulations were developed and hence the optimum quality was obtained. The formulations were gotten from design mixture method using design expert software.

The test carried out on the formulations were determination of PH, and the PH of the adhesive is 6.8, sediment volume, water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power which is fairly comparable. The moisture content of the formulations is 85% and that of the standard is 65-85%


The experimental values of bond strength for different samples were optimized using design mixture method (Minitab software). And result obtained from using this software showed that the bond strength is greatly dependent on the amount of borax that is added to the mixture.



DECLARATION              i

CERTIFICATION           ii

DEDICATION        iii



ABSTRACT              viii


1.1       Background of the Study        1

1.2       Definition of adhesives       2

1.3       Aim and objectives of the study     3

1.4       Statement of the problem  4

1.5       Significance of the study        4

1.6       Scope of the work    4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                 

2.1       History of starch of adhesives          5

2.2       Starch      6

2.3       Description of cassava starch        7

2.4       Description of corn starch      8

2.5       Basic components of starch adhesives/ Classification of adhesives               9

2.6       Chemistry adhesives/principle of adhesion         9

2.7       Bonding process/types of adhesive      10

2.8       Requirements for industrial adhesives/description of starch adhesive           11

2.9       Description of starch adhesive           11

2.10     Response surface methodology         13

2.11     Applications of adhesives        14

2.12     Physical properties of starch/ Chemical properties of starch      15

2.14     Wood adhesives          15

2.15     Characterization of cassava and corn starch     16

2.16     Methods for characterization and results obtained     16

2.17     Components of starch adhesives        18

2.18     Wood adhesive bonding strength evaluation    20

2.19     Evaluation of wood adhesives        22

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                            

3.1       Materials               28

3.2      Equipment used        28

3.3      Preparation of cassava starch        28

3.4      Basic unit operations for cassava  29

3.5     Preparation of corn starch          29

3.6     Basic unit operation for corn        29

3.7     Production process of adhesives     30

3.8     Optimization              30

3.9     Statistical analysis     30

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION                                            

4.1       Result of characterization of the starch       32

4.2       Surface Response and Optimization Analysis   33

4.3       Optimization of the Response          36

4.4      Effect of the ratio of borax, starch and NaOH on the bond strength of the adhesive 38


5.1       Conclusion                          41

5.2       Recommendation     42



Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into market.

Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used as a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.

This technique of bonding adhesive has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used, from history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.

The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesive in wood works and in the production of papyri (i.e a material similar to paper that’s made from papyrus plant).

It was during 19th century that were technology advancement which led to sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G parkins found out that starch could  be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature.

Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported and as such the clamor for adhesive that are locally produced is the primary concern for embarking on this project.

It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn and cassava as the case study or reference study.


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