Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method (PDF)
Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method
Starch was extracted from cassava tubers and corn cobs using wet extraction method. Various formulations were developed and hence the optimum quality was obtained. The formulations were gotten from design mixture method using design expert software.
The test carried out on the formulations were determination of PH, and the PH of the adhesive is 6.8, sediment volume, water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power which is fairly comparable. The moisture content of the formulations is 85% and that of the standard is 65-85%
The experimental values of bond strength for different samples were optimized using design mixture method (Minitab software). And result obtained from using this software showed that the bond strength is greatly dependent on the amount of borax that is added to the mixture.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Definition of adhesives 2
1.3 Aim and objectives of the study 3
1.4 Statement of the problem 4
1.5 Significance of the study 4
1.6 Scope of the work 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of starch of adhesives 5
2.2 Starch 6
2.3 Description of cassava starch 7
2.4 Description of corn starch 8
2.5 Basic components of starch adhesives/ Classification of adhesives 9
2.6 Chemistry adhesives/principle of adhesion 9
2.7 Bonding process/types of adhesive 10
2.8 Requirements for industrial adhesives/description of starch adhesive 11
2.9 Description of starch adhesive 11
2.10 Response surface methodology 13
2.11 Applications of adhesives 14
2.12 Physical properties of starch/ Chemical properties of starch 15
2.14 Wood adhesives 15
2.15 Characterization of cassava and corn starch 16
2.16 Methods for characterization and results obtained 16
2.17 Components of starch adhesives 18
2.18 Wood adhesive bonding strength evaluation 20
2.19 Evaluation of wood adhesives 22
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials 28
3.2 Equipment used 28
3.3 Preparation of cassava starch 28
3.4 Basic unit operations for cassava 29
3.5 Preparation of corn starch 29
3.6 Basic unit operation for corn 29
3.7 Production process of adhesives 30
3.8 Optimization 30
3.9 Statistical analysis 30
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result of characterization of the starch 32
4.2 Surface Response and Optimization Analysis 33
4.3 Optimization of the Response 36
4.4 Effect of the ratio of borax, starch and NaOH on the bond strength
of the adhesive 38
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion 41
5.2 Recommendation 42
Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into market.
Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used as a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.
This technique of bonding adhesive has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used, from history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.
The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesive in wood works and in the production of papyri (i.e a material similar to paper that’s made from papyrus plant).
It was during 19th century that were technology advancement which led to sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G parkins found out that starch could be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature.
Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported and as such the clamor for adhesive that are locally produced is the primary concern for embarking on this project.
It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn and cassava as the case study or reference study.
Ahvazi, B., Wojciechowicz, O.; Ton-That, T.M. and Hawari, J. (2011) Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 10505–10516.
Akhtar, T., Lutfullah, G. and Ullah, Z. (2011) Ligonsulfonate-phenolformaldehyrde adhesive: A potenstial binder for wood panel industries. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 33, 535–538.
Anonymous (1982) USDA Forest product, Laboratory Handbook., Chapter 9.
Benar, P., Gonçalves, A.R., Mandelli, D., Schuchardt, U. (1999) Eucalyptus organosolv lignins: Study of the hydroxymethylation and use in resols. Bioresour. Technol, 68, 11–16.
Çetin, N.S.and Özmen, N. (2003) Studies on lignin-based adhesives for particleboard panels. Turkish J. Agric. For., 27, 183–189.
Cornstarch, Everything2.retrieved 2017-06-08. Cornstarch definition of cornstarch by Merriam-webster.com
Domínguez, J. C., Oliet, M., Alonso, M. V., Rojo, E.and Rodríguez, F. (2013) Structural, thermalandrheological behavior of a bio-based phenolic resin in relation to a commercial resol resin. Ind. Crop. Prod., 42, 308–314.
Donmez Cavdar, A.; Kalaycioglu, H.and Hiziroglu, S. (2008) Some of the properties of oriented strandboard manufactured using kraft lignin phenolic resin. J. Mater. Process. Technol., 202, 559–563.
Ellaiah, B. Srinivasulu, and Adinarayana, K. (2004) Optimisation studies on neomycin production by a mutant strain of Streptomyces marinensis in solid state fermentation,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 529–534
FAO(1983) Proceedings of the workshop on processing technologies for cassava and other tropical roots and tubers in Africa, November 28th – December 2nd, 1983.
Feng, S.; Yuan, Z.; Leitch, M.; Shui, H.; Xu, C.C. (2016) Effects of bark extraction before liquefaction and liquid oil fractionation after liquefaction on bark-based phenol formaldehyde resoles. Ind. Crop. Prod., 84, 330–336.
Feng, S.; Yuan, Z.; Leitch, M.; Xu, C.C. (2015) Adhesives formulated from bark bio-crude and phenol formaldehyde resole. Ind. Crop. Prod. 76, 258–268.
Foschi R. O.(1977) Journal of wood science, 9(3), p. 118-123
Ghaffar, S.H.; Fan, M. (2014) Lignin in straw and its applications as an adhesive. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 48, 92–101.
Gonçalves, A.R.; Benar, P.(2001) Hydroxymethylation and oxidation of Organosolv lignins and utilization of the products. Bioresour. Technol., 79, 103–111.
Grace M. R. (1977) Cassava processing, FAO Rome.
Guo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Ye, L.; Ge, K.; Zhao, T. (2015) The production of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin derived carbon ﬁbers stabilized by BN preceramic polymer. Mater. Lett., 142, 49–51.
He, G.; Yan, N. (2005) Effect of moisture content on curing kinetics of pMDI resin and wood mixtures. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 25, 450–455.
Ihekoronye A. I., Nggody P. O.(1985) Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics, Macmillan, London
International starch (2011) Production of corn starch. Starch.dk. retrieved 2011-06-12
Irvine,G.M.(1985) The signiﬁcance of the glass transition of lignin in thermomechanical pulping. WoodSci. Technol, 19, 139–149.
Jin, Y.; Cheng, X.; Zheng, Z. (2010) Preparation and characterization of phenol-formaldehyde adhesives modiﬁed with enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. Bioresour. Technol., 101, 2046–2048.
Adinarayana, K., Ellaiah, P., Srinivasulu, B., Bhavani, R., Devi, R. and Adinarayana, G. (2003)Response surface methodological approach to optimize the nutritional parameters for neomycin production Streptomyces marinensis under solid-state fermentation, Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1565–1572.
Kadla, J.F.; Kubo, S.; Venditti, R.A.; Gilbert, R.D.; Compere, A.L.; Grifﬁth, W.(2002) Lignin-based carbon ﬁbers for composite ﬁber applications. Carbon, 40, 2913–2920.
Klasnja, B.; Kopitovic, S. (1992) Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins as adhesive in the production of plywood. Holz als Roh- und Werkst, 50, 282–285.
Kong, X.; Liu, G.; Curtis, J.M.(2011) Characterization of canola oil based polyurethane wood adhesives. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 31, 559–564.
Kunaver, M.; Medved, S.; ˇCuk, N.; Jasiukaityte, E.; Poljanšek, I.; Strnad, T.(2010) Application of liqueﬁed wood as a new particle board adhesive system. Bioresour. Technol., 101, 1361–1368.
Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Li, C.; Gu, Z.; Cheng, L.; Hong, Y.(2015) Effects of montmorillonite addition on the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. Carbohydr. Polym., 115, 394–400.
Majumdar, M.K and Majumdar, S.K (1967) “Utilization of carbon and nitrogen-containing compounds for neomycin production by Streptomyces fradiae,” Applied Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 744–749, 1967.
Ma, Y.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Wang, Z. (2011) An approach to improve the application of acid-insoluble lignin from ricehullinphenol-formaldehyderesin. ColloidsSurf. APhysicochem. Eng. Asp.,377,284–289.
Matsushita, Y.; Wada, S.; Fukushima, K.; Yasuda, S.(2006) Surface characteristics of phenol-formaldehyde-lignin resin determined by contact angle measurement and inverse gas chromatography. Ind. Crop. Prod., 23, 115–121.
Newman, W.H.; Glasser, W.G.(1985) Engineering plastics from lignin XII. Synthesis and Performance of Lignin Adhesives with Isocyanate and Melamine. Holzforschung, 39, 345–353.
Nordqvist, P.; Thedjil, D.; Khosravi, S.; Lawther, M.; Malmstrom, E.; Khabbaz, F.(2012) Wheat Gluten Fractions as Wood Adhesives—Glutenins Versus Gliadins. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 123, 1530–1538.
Olivares, M.; Aceituno, H.; Neiman, G.; Rivera, E.; Sellers, T.J. lignin-modiﬁed phenolic adhesives for bonding radiata pine plywood. For. Prod. J. 1995, 45, 63–67.
Olivares, M.; Guzmán, J.A.; Natho, A.; Saavedra, A.(1988) Kraft lignin utilization in adhesives. Wood. Sci. Technol., 22, 157–165.
Pan, Z.; Cathcart, A.; Wang, D.(2006) Properties of particleboard bond with rice bran and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate adhesives. Ind. Crop. Prod., 23, 40–45.
Peng, W.; Riedl, B.(1994) The chemorheology of phenol-formaldehyde thermoset resin and mixtures of the resin with lignin ﬁllers. Polymer (Guildf), 35, 1280–1286.
Pizzi, A.(2006) Recent developments in eco-efﬁcient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: Opportunities and issues. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 20, 829–846.
Pizzi, A.(2016) Wood products and green chemistry. Ann. For. Sci., 73, 185–203.
Qiao, W.; Li, S.; Guo, G.; Han, S.; Ren, S.; Ma, Y.(2014) Synthesis and characterization of phenol-formaldehyde resin using enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 21, 1417–1422.
Ramachandran, A. K. Patel, K. M. Nampoothiri et al.,(2004) Coconut oil cake—a potential raw material for the production of α-amylase,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 169–174.
Roffael, E.; Dix, B.(1991) Lignin and ligninsulfonate in non-conventional bonding–An overview. Holz als Roh- und Werkst, 49, 199–205.
Romano, H. and Nickerson, W.J (1958) Utilization of amino acids as carbon sources by Streptomyces fradiae, Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 161–166
Santoni, I.; Pizzo, B.(2013) Evaluation of alternative vegetable proteins as wood adhesives. Ind. Crop. Prod., 45, 148–154.
Selvakumar and A. Pandey,(1999) Solid state fermentation for the synthesis of inulinase from Staphylococcus sp. and Kluyveromyces marxianus, Process Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 851–855, 1999.
Siddiqui, H. (2013) Production of Lignin-based Phenolic Resin Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin and Process Optimization. Master’s Thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 2013.
Siebra, E. Ludke, M., Ludke, J.V., Bertol, T.M., Dutra Jr., W.M., El Mansouri, N.-E., Pizzi, A.and Salvado, J. (2007) Lignin-based polycondensation resins for wood adhesives. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 103, 1690–1699.
Tejado, A.; Kortaberria, G.; Labidi, J.; Echeverria, J.M.; Mondragon, I.(2008) Isoconversional kinetic analysis of novolac-type lignophenolic resins cure. Thermochim. Acta, 471, 80–85.
Tejado, A.; Peña, C.; Labidi, J.; Echeverria, J.M.; Mondragon, I.(2007) Physico-chemical characterization of lignins fromdifferentsourcesforuseinphenol-formaldehyderesinsynthesis. Bioresour. Technol. 98,1655–1663.
Tonukari N. J.,(2004) Cassava and the future of starch, Electronic of Biotechnology vol. 7(1),.
Trosa, A.; Pizzi, A. A (2001) No-aldehyde emission hardener for tannin-based wood adhesives for exterior panels. Holz als Roh- und Werkst, 59, 266–271.
Vﬁzquez, G.; Gonzﬁlez, J.; Freire, S.; Antorrena, G. (1997) Effect of chemical modiﬁcation of lignin on the gluebond performance of lignin-phenolic resins. Bioresour. Technol., 60, 191–198.
Waksman, A.P. and Lechevalier, H.A (2008) Neomycin, a new antibiotic active against streptomycin-resistant bacteria, including tuberculosis organisms,” Science, vol. 109, no. 2830, pp. 305–307, 1949.·
Wang, M.; Leitch, M.; Xu, C.C.(2009) Synthesis of phenol–formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins. Eur. Polym. J., 45, 3380–3388.
Wang, P.; Cheng, L.; Gu, Z.; Li, Z.; Hong, Y.(2015) Assessment of starch-based wood adhesive, quality by confocal Raman Microscopic detection of reaction homogeneity. Carbohydr. Polym. 131, 75–79.
Yang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Yuan, T.-Q.; Sun, R.-C. (2015) Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesives prepared with bioreﬁnery technical lignins. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 132, 1–8.
Zhang, W.; Ma, Y.; Xu, Y.; Wang, C.; Chu, F.(2013) Lignocellulosic ethanol residue-based lignin-phenol- formaldehyde resin adhesive. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 40, 11–18.
Zheng,Z.;Huang,Y.;Zou,J.;Zhang,H.(2008)PhenolationofusingsulfuricacidasacatalystandapplicationtoPF resin adhesives. J. Biotechnol. 136, S410–S411.
Join Over 500,000+ Readers Online Now.
Copyright Warning: Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.