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Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method (PDF)


Optimization and Production of Adhesives from Cassava and Corn Starch Using Design Mixture Method


Starch was extracted from cassava tubers and corn cobs using wet extraction method. Various formulations were developed and hence the optimum quality was obtained. The formulations were gotten from design mixture method using design expert software.

The test carried out on the formulations were determination of PH, and the PH of the adhesive is 6.8, sediment volume, water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power which is fairly comparable. The moisture content of the formulations is 85% and that of the standard is 65-85%

The experimental values of bond strength for different samples were optimized using design mixture method (Minitab software). And result obtained from using this software showed that the bond strength is greatly dependent on the amount of borax that is added to the mixture.



DECLARATION                                                                                                       i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                         iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           v

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               viii



1.1       Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Definition of adhesives                                                                                   2

1.3       Aim and objectives of the study                                                                     3

1.4       Statement of the problem                                                                               4

1.5       Significance of the study                                                                                4

1.6       Scope of the work                                                                                           4


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                 

2.1       History of starch of adhesives                                                                                    5

2.2       Starch                                                                                                              6

2.3       Description of cassava starch                                                                          7

2.4       Description of corn starch                                                                               8

2.5       Basic components of starch adhesives/ Classification of adhesives               9

2.6       Chemistry adhesives/principle of adhesion                                                     9

2.7       Bonding process/types of adhesive                                                                10

2.8       Requirements for industrial adhesives/description of starch adhesive           11

2.9       Description of starch adhesive                                                                        11

2.10     Response surface methodology                                                                      13

2.11     Applications of adhesives                                                                               14

2.12     Physical properties of starch/ Chemical properties of starch                          15

2.14     Wood adhesives                                                                                              15

2.15     Characterization of cassava and corn starch                                                   16

2.16     Methods for characterization and results obtained                                         16

2.17     Components of starch adhesives                                                                    18

2.18     Wood adhesive bonding strength evaluation                                                 20

2.19     Evaluation of wood adhesives                                                                        22


CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                            

3.1       Materials                                                                                                         28

3.2      Equipment used                                                                                              28

3.3      Preparation of cassava starch                                                                          28

3.4      Basic unit operations for cassava                                                                    29

3.5     Preparation of corn starch                                                                               29

3.6     Basic unit operation for corn                                                                          29

3.7     Production process of adhesives                                                                     30

3.8     Optimization                                                                                                   30

3.9     Statistical analysis                                                                                           30


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION                                            

4.1       Result of characterization of the starch                                                          32

4.2       Surface Response and Optimization Analysis                                                33

4.3       Optimization of the Response                                                                        36

4.4      Effect of the ratio of borax, starch and NaOH on the bond strength

of the adhesive                                                                                                38


5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  41

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                                        42





Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into market.

Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used as a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.

This technique of bonding adhesive has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used, from history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.

The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesive in wood works and in the production of papyri (i.e a material similar to paper that’s made from papyrus plant).

It was during 19th century that were technology advancement which led to sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G parkins found out that starch could  be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature.

Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported and as such the clamor for adhesive that are locally produced is the primary concern for embarking on this project.

It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn and cassava as the case study or reference study.


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CSN Team

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