A Comparative Study of Cleft Formation In The Syntax of Nsukka : Current School News

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A Comparative Study of Cleft Formation In The Syntax of Nsukka And Standard Igbo

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A Comparative Study of Cleft Formation In The Syntax of Nsukka And Standard Igbo.

Abstract

This research work is a linguistic endeavour aimed at exploring the grammatical components and structures of cleft sentences of the standard Igbo language in general on the one hand.

On the other hand and forming the specific objective, is relating cleft formations and cleft structures of the Nsukka dialect with those of the standard Igbo.

Consequently, the work unprecedented formulated, analyzed, compared and contrasted the cleft structures of the language and dialect under study.

The study was guide by the theory of transformational grammar. The findings from the study show that cleft formation in standard Igbo language and in Nsukka dialect is a focussing mechanism on a particular constituent of a sentence.

The focussing emphasises the constituent element through the operation of the S NP INFL VP rule, a concept of transformational grammar.

In both the language and dialect under study, cleft structures have special elements that introduce the focussed constituents. The focussing indicator may be nominal, adjectival, adverbial or prepositional; and clefting is possible in all the kinds of sentences.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page  – – – – – – – – – -i

Approval  – – – – – – – – – -ii

Certification     – – – – – – – – -iii

Dedication    – – – – – – – – – -IV

Acknowledgements    – – – – – – – -v

Table of contents    – – – – – – – – -VI

Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background to the Study – – – – – – – -1

1.1.   Statement of the Problem   – – – – – – -5

1.2   Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – -6

1.3    Research Question – – – – – – – -6

1.4    Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – -6

1.5   Significance of the Study – – – – – – – -6

1.6   Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – -7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.0   Introduction – – – – – – – – – -8

2.1   Sentences – – – – – – – – – -8

2.1.1 Syntax – – – – – – – – – -8

2.2 Theoretical Studies-  – – – – – – – 13

2.2.1 Movement Transformation    – – – – – – 14

2.2.2 Adjunction Transformation – – – – – 16

2.2.3 Substitution Transformation – – – – – – 17

2.3 Cleft in Syntax – – – – – – – – 18

2.3.1      Relative Clause in Cleft Sentence – – – – – -22

2.3.1.1 Question – Element as Prepositional Complement within Noun Phrase (in formal English)– — – – 22

2.3.1.2 Question-Element as Nominal Object – – – – 23

2.3.2    Types of Cleft Sentence – – – – – – 24

2.3.2.1  Pseudo- Cleft Sentence – – – – – – 24

2.3.2.2  Focus/ Post –Focus Cleft Sentence – – – – 26

2.3.2.3  All Focus Cleft Sentence – – – – – – 27

2.3.2.4  Broad Focus Cleft Sentence – – – – – 27

2.3.3 Cleft in Other Languages: French, Italian, Japanese, Chinese etc – – – – – – – 28

2.4  Structural Differences in Clause-Cleft Relatives- – – 33

2.5 Empirical Studies – – – – – – – 36

2.6       Summary of Review – – – – – – – 43

CHAPTER THREE: DATA ANALYSIS

3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 45

3.1 Cleft Formation in Standard Igbo – – – – – 45

3.1.1 Pseudo Cleft in Standard Igbo – – – – – 45

3.1.2 All Focus Cleft in Standard Igbo – – – – – 47

3.1.3 Post Focus Cleft in Standard Igbo – – – – 49

3.1.4 Broad Focus Cleft in Standard Igbo – – – – 59

3.2 Cleft Formation in Nsukka Dialect – – – – – 61

3.2.1 Pseudo-Cleft in Nukka Dialect – – – – – 61

3.2.2 Post Focus Cleft in Nsukka Dialect – – – – 62

3.2.3 All Focus Cleft in Nsukka Dailect – – – – 66

3.2.4 Broad Focus Cleft in Nsukka Dialect – – – – 68

CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

4.0 Introduction  – – – – – – – – 69

4.1. Conclusions – – – – – – – – – 71

4.2 Recommendations for Further Research – – – – 71

References

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Man’s anthropological description as a homo faber and a homo loquens contradistinguish human from other animals and under which they are biologically classified.

Homo faber describes man’s capability to make and use tools and other objects while his cultural linguistic attribute defines him as a homo loquens.

This latter attribute of man’s means that he is a user of human language: a system of sound symbol used to intelligibly communicate his thoughts, ideas, feelings and desires through speech or writing.

To Strickland (1957), language is a body of sounds and meaning held in common by the members of a linguistic group.

The expressions of a language involve a relationship between a sequence of sounds and a meaning where sound covers phonology, morphology and syntax, (Lamb publication).

In other words, the evolution, propagation and use of a language consist in putting meaningful elements or letters of the alphabet together to form words;

putting words together to form phrases; phrases together to form clauses,; clauses together to form sentences and putting sentences together to form texts; Robert (1997) . It is an instrument for interactive communication among people.

REFERENCES

Agbedo, C.U (2000). General Linguistics. An Introductory Reader. Nsukka: ACE   Resources Konsult.

Anagbogu, P.N, Mbah, B.M. & Eme, C.A. (2010) Introduction to Linguistics. Awka. Amaka Dreams Ltd.

Asogwa, P, Nwachukwu R and Nweke N. (1989). ‘Error Analysis of Written Igbo Composition in Junior Secondary School in Awak Local Goernment Area.’ B.A. (Ed) project University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Atterton, D. (1990). Language as Form and Pattern: Grammar and its Categories. Ed Collinge N.E. Routledge. London.

Boulakia, G. (1978). Phonosyntaxe: Etudes Psychacoustiques et Linguistiques. Thése University Paris V11.

Bussmann, H. (1996). Routledgte Dictionary of Languages and Linguistics, Trauth and Kazzazik (eds) Routledge. London and New York.

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