Study of Opinions and Perceptions on Factors Affecting Human Trafficking : Current School News

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A Comparative Study of Opinions and Perceptions on Factors Affecting Human Trafficking in Imo and Edo States of Nigeria

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A Comparative Study of Opinions and Perceptions on Factors Affecting Human Trafficking in Imo and Edo States of Nigeria.

ABSTRACT  

The phenomenon of human trafficking which is the recruitment, harbouring, transportation or receipt of persons within national and international borders for the purpose of exploitation has been very prevalent in Nigeria. Therefore, this study carried out a comparative examination of opinions and perceptions on factors affecting human trafficking in Imo and Edo states of Nigeria.

A cross-sectional survey of one thousand, two hundred (1200) respondents was conducted in Oredo and Ikpoba-Okha of Edo state, and Ahiazu-Mbaise and Ehime-Mbano of Imo state. The main instrument for data collection was a uniform set of structured questionnaire schedule, administered by trained research assistants. This was supported by data from in-depth interview with purposively selected victims and individuals, and focus group discussions with victims, adult male, female and youth groups.

The analysis of the data showed that there was a high level of awareness of human trafficking in Edo and Imo states. In Edo state, the perception showed that there was higher level of women trafficking, while in Imo state, there was higher level of child trafficking. It was also established that the traffickers were mostly made up of close relatives and even parents. Indeed, the study established that in most cases, there is a nexus between the trafficker and the victim.

Also, females were found to participate more as traffickers than males, hence there is a significant relationship (x2 = 89.429, df = 3, p<0.001) between the sex of traffickers’ male and female and human trafficking in both states. The age group of persons with the most vulnerability of being trafficked were identified from the study as 15 – 24 years for women, while the age group of children with the most vulnerability of being trafficked were 6 – 15 years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – ix
List of tables – – – – – – – – – xi
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – xii
Abbreviation/Acronyms- – – – – – – – – xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Research Questions – – – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – – 7
1.5 significance of the study – – – – – – – – 7
1.6 Definition of Concepts – – – – — – – – 8

CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
2.1 Global Review of Human Trafficking – – – – – 11
2.2 Human Trafficking and Related Concepts – – – – – – 12
2.2.1 Human Trafficking and Migration – – – – – 12
2.2.2. Human Trafficking and Organised Crime – – – – – – 13
2.2.3 Human Trafficking and the Concept of Demand and Profit – 14
2.2.4 Human Trafficking and the Push and Pull Model – – – 15
2.3 Empirical Literature Review – – – – – – – 16
2.4 Review of Theoretical Literature – – – – – – – 20
2.4.1 Routine Activities Theory (RAT)- – – – – – 20
2.4.2 Differential Association Theory – – – – – – 21
2.4.3 The Structural and Anomie Theory – – – – – 22
2.4.4. Conflict Theory – – – – – – – – 23
2.5 Theoretical Orientation – – – – – – – – 23
2.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 25

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – – 26
3.2 Area of Study – – – – – – – – – 26
3.3 Study Population- – – – – – – – 27
3.4 Sample Frame – – – – – – – – – 27
3.5 Sample Size – – – – – – – – – – 28
3.6 Sampling Procedure – – – – – – – – – 28
3.7 Instruments and Methods for Data Collection – – – – – 31
3.8 Instrument Administration and Access – – – – – – 32
3.9 Data Processing and Analyses – — – – – – – 33
3.10 Limitation of the Study – – — – – – – 33

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES
4.1 Socio Demographic Characteristics of Respondents- – – – – 36
4.2 Characteristics of Households in the Community in Edo and Imo States – – 43
4.3 Awareness of Human Trafficking and Prevalence – – – – – 46
4.4 Knowledge and Characteristics of Human Traffickers – – – – 50
4.5 Characteristics of Likely Victims and People Must Likely to be Trafficked – 62
4.6 Factors Responsible for People Being Victims of Human Trafficking – – 67
4.8 Destination of Trafficked persons – – – – – – – 79
4.9 Victim Experience – – – – – – – – – 81
4.10 Possible Solutions to the Problem of Human Trafficking- – – – 84

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – – 85
5.1.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents – – – 85
5.1.2 Characteristics of Households in the Community – – – – 86
5.1.3 Awareness and Prevalence of human Trafficking – – – 88
5.1.4 Knowledge and Characteristics of Human Trafficking – – – 89
5.1.5 Characteristics of Likely Victims and people Most Likely to Trafficked – 92
5.1.6 Factors Responsible for People Being Victims of Human Trafficking- 94
5.1.7 Characteristics of Families that are likely to give out children to others – 95
5.1.8 Destination of Trafficked Persons- – – – – – 97
5.1.9 Human Trafficking Routes by Air, Land and Air from Nigeria to Destinations
Around the World – – – – – – – – 98
5.1.10 Victim Experience – – – – – – – – 99
5.1.11 Possible Solutions to the Problem of Human Trafficking – – – 101
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – 102
5.3 Recommendation- – – – – – – – – 106

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION  

Trafficking in human person is a global phenomenon. The practice has reached an epidemic proportion especially since the past decade. It is also prevalent in all countries though the general awareness level and institutional actions toward combating the trend is low. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs (UNODC; 2004), trafficking in human being is prevalent in Africa and Asia, but growing fastest in Central and Eastern Europe.

This trend could be attributed to the relatively poor economic conditions in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In the case of Africa and Asia, the predominantly poor socio-economic situations may serve as basic impetus for involving in human trafficking. The United Nations protocol defines trafficking in persons as “The recruitment, transportation, transfer harbouring or receipt of person…for the purpose of exploitation…” (Ubi, 2003, NAPTIP News, 2006:33).

The International Labour Organization (ILO) also noted that for human movement to qualify as trafficking there should be the conclusion of a transaction, the intervention of an intermediary, and the motive to exploit. Human trafficking networks involve several processes, stages and diverse groups of persons from local pimps to foreign syndicates. There are two dimensions of human trafficking: internal human trafficking, and international human trafficking, (UNICEF, 2000, Fact Sheet Nigeria, 2002).

 

REFERENCES

Abalo, E.M. (2000). Problematique du traffic des enfants are Togo, Rapport d’enquele
ILO/IPEC; May

Adler, P. (1993). Wheeling and Dealing: An Ethnography of an Upper Level Drug Dealing
and Smuggling Community 2nd Ed. New York: Colombia University Press.

Alba, R; and Dwight S. Jnr. (1977). Ripping out the label that says made in Sicily, New York
Times.

Anderson, B and Davidson, J.O. (2002). Trafficking- A demand led Problem? A Multi
country pilot study. Save the children.

Angeli, F. (2003). Stop Trafficking in Human beings, together its possible International
Conference: 21st Century Slavery- The Human Rights Dimension to Trafficking in
Human Beings. Milano, May.

Antislavery International (2003). The Migration Trafficking Nexus. London:
Broomgrove Road.

Babbie, E. (1992). Survey Research Methods. California: Wadsworth Publishers.

Bamaiyi, M. (1997) NDLEA Press Relations Unit, Ikoyi Lagos.

Barkindo, B. and Lipede, A. ed. (2006). Human Trafficking and Economic Crimes Across
Nigeria’s International Borders, African Strategic and Peace Research Group.
Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

CSN Team.

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