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A Study of Rural Women Participation in Education for Development In Kaduna State of Nigeria

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A Study of Rural Women Participation in Education for Development In Kaduna State of Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes, effects and possible solutions to the low participation of rural women in education using Kaduna State as its focus.

This was prompted by the increase in the illiteracy level of the rural women and its implication for national development. The specific objectives of the study include:

An investigation into the extent of rural women participation in planning their education, cultural/community restrictions and other factors that have contributed to the low participation of rural women in education.

Also investigated are the influence of low participation of the rural women on national development and the strategies for improving their participation in education.

The study generally aimed at improving rural women participation in education through participatory planning that can emerge with a relevant curriculum for women education.

Two thousand and sixty nine (2069) respondents made up of 1,600 rural women and 469 literacy facilitators from the 19 rural local governments of Kaduna State were randomly selected for the study.

The questionnaire was used in gathering data for the study. The analysis of data was on the causes and effects of low participation in education on national development and the strategies for improving participation in education.

These were statistically tested using the means, standard deviations and the t-test for significance in the differences in the mean ratings of respondents as presented in the five hypotheses. The results largely showed non-significant differences.

Consequently, the null hypotheses were accepted. The specific findings include: rural women were not involved in planning literacy programs meant for them.

Cultural restrictions and other factors such as poverty, the nonchalant attitude of women towards education, inadequate funding, the frequent change in government and frequent revision of policies on education have also contributed to the low participation of women in education.

It was discovered that the low participation of women in education has limited their contribution to national development.

This is made manifest in their inadequate development of skills needed for development, limited participation in the process of governance, and inability to take up some job opportunities.

Recognizing the implication of this for educational planning, a careful strategy that aims at meeting the needs of the rural women was identified.

The study therefore proposed a participatory planned education for rural women using the principle of Participatory Rural Appraisal.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………… i
Declaration………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification………………………………………………………………. iii
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………. iv
Dedication…………………………………………………………………. vii
Table of contents……………………………………………………………. viii
List of tables………………………………………………………………… xii
List of figures ……………………………………………………………….. xiii
List of appendices…………………………………………………………. xiv
Abstract …………………………………………………………………….. xv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………………………………………… 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM………………………………………… 7
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………….. 9
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS…………………………………………………. 9
1.5 HYPOTHESES……………………………………………………………… 10
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK…………………………………………… 11
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY………………………………………… 15
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY………………………………………… 17
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS………………………………………………….. 17

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………………20
2.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATION OF BASIC ISSUES………………………20
2.3 EXTENT OF RURAL WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION
AND PLANNING……………………………………………………………….27
2.4 CULTURAL RESTRICTIONS AND OTHER FACTORS MILITATING
AGAINST RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION………..36
2.5 INFLUENCE OF LOW PARTICIPATION OF RURAL WOMEN IN
LITERACY EDUCATION ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT……………42
2.6 STRATEGIES FOR ENCOURAGING RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION
IN EDUCATION………………………………………………………………49
2.6.1 Principles Of Participatory Learning And Action………………………..49
2.6.2 Strategies By The Government…………………………………………..58
2.6.3 Strategies By NGOs And Other Bodies…………………………………59
2.6.4 Strategies For The Education Planners………………………… ………87
2.6.5 Strategies For Communities And Religious Bodies ……………………89
2.7 ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN
EDUCATION………………………………………………………………..89
2.8 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW. …………………………….…93

CHAPTER THREE: METHODS
3.1 OVERVIEW……………………………………………………………………97
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………………97
3.3 POPULATION…………………………………………………………………98
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND SAMPLING SIZE………………………99
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION……………………………….103
3.5.1 Validity……………………………………………………………………..104
3.5.2 Reliability………………………………………………………………..…105
3.6 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION……………………………….106
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………..107

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………..108
4.2 PRESENTATION OF DATA……………………………………………..108
4.2.1 Rural Women’s Involvement In The Planning Of Their Literacy
Education……………………………………..………………………….109
4.2.2 Community Restrictions And Low Participation Of Rural
Women In Education……………………………………………………113
4.2.3 Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of
Rural Women In Education……………………………………….……115
4.2.4 Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
On National Development ………………………………………………120
4.2.5 Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation
In Education……………………………………………………………….122
4.3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING…………………………………………………129
4.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS……………………………………………….140

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, SUMMARY OF
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 OVERVIEW ……..…………………………………………………………142
5.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS……………………………..…………….142
5.2.1 Extent Of Rural Women Participation In Planning Their
Education programs ….……………………………………………………143
5.2.2 Cultural/Community Restrictions And The Low Participation Of
Rural Women In Education……………………………………………….149
5.2.3 Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of
Rural Women In Education……………………………………………….151
5.2.4 Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
On National Development ……………………………………………….155
5.2.5 Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation
In Education………………………………………………………………..158
5.3 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS……………………………………160
5.3.1 Extent of Rural Women Participation in Planning Education………..160
5.3.2. Cultural/Community Restrictions And The Low Participation Of
Rural Women In Education……………………………………………….161
5.3.3. Other Factors Responsible For The Low Participation Of
Rural Women In Education………………………………………………..162
5.3.4. Influence Of Low Participation Of Rural Women In Education
On National Development ………………………………………………….162
5.3.5. Strategies For Encouraging Rural Women Participation
In Education……………………………………………………………….…163
5.4 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………..164
5.4.1. Implication For Educational Planning………………………………………165
5.5. RECOMMENDATIONS……….……………………………………………..169
5.6 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY……………………………………171
5.7 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE………………………………………. 172
5.8. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY…………………………………………….….174
5.9 Model For Planning Education For Rural Women…………………………175
REFERENCES …..………………………………………………………………….176
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………187

LIST OF TABLES
Table I: Summary of the enrolment figures for literacy classes ……. 35
Table 2: Participatory techniques showing structure, contents,
time and levels of participation …………………………………..70
Table 3: Population and sample size by Local Government ……………102
Table 4: Responses on rural women involvement in planning ….……..110
Table 5: Mean ratings on rural woman involvement in planning ……. 112
Table 6: Responses on community restrictions …………..………..…..114
Table 7: Mean ratings on community restrictions …….…………………116
Table 8: Responses on the role of other factors in the low participation .117
Table 9: Means ratings of the rural woman on other factors……………119
Table 10: Responses on effects of low participation of rural women……121
Table 1I: Mean ratings on the effects of low participation…..……………123
Table I2: facilitators and the rural women responses on strategies….…125
Table I3: Mean ratings on strategies for improving rural women………127
Table14: t-test analysis of women on involvement in planning.. ……. 131
Tab le15: t-test analysis on restrictions…………………………………….133
Table 16: t-test analysis on other factors …………………………………..135
Table 17: t-test analysis on effects of low participations…………………..137
Table 18: t-test analysis on strategies……………………………………….139
LIST OF FIGURES:
Figure 1 Model for planning education for rural women——————–175

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Rural women play important role in improving general aspects of rural life. However, in most developing countries, women (and even more so, rural women) are still an under-privileged group with an inferior social status (Okojie, 1983; National Population Commission, 1999).

Within the rural sector, Okojie (1983), sees the largest group of the poor as comprising the millions of women (including girls) who by their work in the fields produce a large part of the food consumed in the country, yet are disadvantaged in many areas.

A closer examination of the situation of rural women through this study will seek to reveal the low participation of rural women in education and the disadvantages of females in most rural sectors.

Nevertheless, rural women’s participation in the socio-economic development of their country in recent years has become a topic of major concern hence, the need for it to be treated as a goal in its own right (International Labour Organization,1990; Olorude, 1995).

Although women’s participation in the socio-economic development of the country is receiving attention throughout the world, majority of them still live in rural areas, un-educated, living in abject poverty and deprivation (National Population Commission, 1999).

This demands that their continued illiteracy has to be looked into and ways of bringing them out have to be devised. If these 2 women produce a large part of our food, they indeed need to be educated to enable them know more about modern equipment that can help them carry out their farming and other important activities within the rural areas.

This becomes important as it has been found that education can enhance productivity and the ability of rural women so as to contribute to the national economy (Nwabueze, 1995).

This researcher is of the view that rural women would be in a better position to use technologically developed equipment that may enhance their productivity if educated.

This is because education’s concern is being modernized towards integration with the national economy (Rahman,1981). Akangbou (1983) maintains that education is no longer an isolated industry from the national economy.

Every system of education is supposed to be geared towards the development of its national economy and every segment of the society, including rural women should be equipped with education and training to enable it contribute to the national economy.

Kaduna State of Nigeria is desirous to develop the ability of every member of the society (including rural women) to enhance their productivity and contribution to the development of the nation.

REFERENCES

Adamu, M.A.(1987). Towards enhancing girl child education for national development. A paper presented at the second national conference of the Federal College of Education, department of education, Katsina.7-30th May

Adelakun, O.A. (1984) Social structure and rural development In Nigeria. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Cardiff. U.K.

Adesina, S.(1981). Some aspects of school management. Lagos: Educational industries Nig. Ltd.

Adjai, R. (1982). Traditional African education: The need of the Nigerian girl child A paper presented at the second national conference of the department of education, Federal College of Education, Katsina 27-30th May

Adnan M.(1992). Principles of participatory learning and action. In IAWA(1997) Development In practice. London: ILED-UK

Afolabi, M.(1993). Introduction to research for writing proposals, projects and thesis. Zaria: Alhpa publishers.

Agu, E.C.P.(1983). Development and quality of life: Rural Nigeria policy. Ilorin: university press

Akangbou, S.D. (1983) The Economics of education: An introduction. Ibadan: Shareson Ltd.

Akpa,G.O.(1999) Education and rural transformation in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for educational planning. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Jos.

Alao, J.A. (1980).Understanding small farmer adoption behaviour, the Nigerian experience. An inaugural lecture series 44.Ife: University press.

Alao, J.A. (1987). Essentials of rural development policy in Nigeria. A presidential address to the 4th national conference of NRSA, ABU Zaria, 17-20th May.

Anaughe, S.W.(1989).Rural development. In S.W Anaughe (Ed.). Better life. Report on the two day workshop on the role of women voluntary organisations and support groups in development, organised by the Federal Ministry of Information, 5-6th October in Ikeja .

Anyawu, C. N. (1981).Adult education in the rural communities of West Africa: The need for a development orientation. Journal of the Nigeria

 

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