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Analysis of Void Fraction Phase Distribution of Gas-Liquid Flow in a Horizontal Pipe Using Wire Mesh Sensor Data

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Analysis of Void Fraction Phase Distribution of Gas-Liquid Flow in a Horizontal Pipe Using Wire Mesh Sensor Data.

ABSTRACT

The scope of this work was to make detailed analysis of phase distribution in a horizontal pipe. This detailed analysis has been successfully carried out. Data obtained from wire mesh sensor (WMS) were used for the analyses. The operating fluid considered was an air/silicone oil mixture within a 6 m horizontal pipe with internal diameter of 0.067 m. The gas superficial velocities considered spans from 0.047 to 4.727 m/s, whilst liquid superficial velocities ranged from 0.047 to 0.4727 m/s.

The wire mesh sensor (WMS) data obtained consist of the average cross- sectional and time average radial void fraction sensor with an acquisition frequency of 1000 Hz over an interval of 60 s. For the range of flow conditions studied, the average void fraction was observed to vary between 0.38 and 0.85. An analysis of the results shows that the major flow patterns observed in this study were found to be in slug and smooth stratified flow regime with the slug flow been the dominant one.

At constant liquid superficial velocity, the void fraction increases with an increase in the gas superficial velocity. This observed trend in the horizontal void fraction is consistent with the observations made by (Abdulkadir et al., 2014) and (Abdulkadir et al., 2010) which were all in the vertical orientation. The performance of the void fraction correlations and their accuracies were judged in terms of percentage error and RMS error.

Nicklin et al. (1962), Hassan (1995) and Kokal and Stanislav (1989) were judged as the best performing correlations and Greskovich and Cooper (1975) as the least.  A cubic profile which was dependent on the gas superficial velocity was observed as the radial void fraction increases with gas superficial velocity. It was also obseved that for a given liquid superficial velocity, the frictional pressure drop increases with increase in both gas and mixture superficial velocities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ABSTRACT

DEDICATION       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT      v

LIST OF FIGURES                 ix

LIST OF TABLES     xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 

  • Problem Definition 1
  • Background Information 3
  • Aim and Objectives 7
    • Aim 7
    • Objectives 7
  • Organization of the Study 7

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW  

  • Complexity of Multiphase Flow 11
  • Flow Patterns in Horizontal Pipes 13
  • Flow Patterns in Vertical Tubes 16
  • Flow Pattern Maps 18
    • Kristiansen Flow Pattern Map 21
    • Baker Flow Pattern Map 22
    • Taitel and Dukler Flow Pattern Map 23
  • Void Fraction Correlation 26
    • Slip ratio correlations 28
    • KαH Correlations 29
    • Drift flux correlations 29
  • Void Fractions in Two-Phase Flows 32
    • The local void fraction 32
    • The chordal void fraction 33
    • The volumetric void fraction 34
  • Radial Void Fraction Distribution 34
  • Frequency 37
  • Pressure Drop 38
  • The Wire-Mesh 39
    • An Electrode Mesh 40
    • The Measurement Principle 41
    • The Sensor 41
    • The Electronics 42
    • Multi-Phase Flows 43

CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 

  • Experimental Arrangements 45
  • Overview of the Experimental Facility 45
  • System (Test Fluid) 46
  • Description of Flow Facility 47
  • Wire Mesh Sensor 48
  • Processing of Void fraction profiles 50

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Introduction 52
  • Flow Pattern Map 52
  • Performance analysis of the void fraction correlations 54
  • Variation of time averaged cross-sectional void fraction distribution with gas superficial velocity 57
  • Wu et al. (2001)’s published equation compared to the experimental time averaged radial void fraction 59
  • The effect of gas superficial velocity on flow pattern and radial void fraction profile 61
  • Pressure Drop Analyses 63
  • Effect of gas superficial velocity on the dominant frequency 68

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • CONCLUSIONS 72
  • RECOMMENDATIONS 74

INTRODUCTION 

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These increases in responsibilities are not peculiar to the man alone but also to the woman as well. There are therefore a lot of problems that arise as a result of the union between the man and the woman. If today they are not figurehting and threatening to divorce each other, tomorrow they may be quarrelling and insulting each other as to why they made such a wrong choice. Today, marriage has become like a besieged city, all those in it want to come out and all those who are out want to go in. It is amazing, isn’t it?

REFERENCES

Abdulkadir, M. Hernandez-Perez, V., S. Sharaf, I.S. Lowndes, B.J. Azzopardi, Experimental investigation of phase distributions of two-phase air–silicone oil flow in a vertical pipe, World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. (WASET) 61 (2010) 52– 59.

Abdulkadir, M., Hernandez-Perez, V., Detailed analysis of phase distributions in a vertical riser using wire mesh sensor (WMS),

Anglart, H. and Podowski, M. Z., “Fluid Mechanics of Taylor Bubbles and Slug Flows in Vertical Channels,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 140, 165-171 (2002).

Armand, A.A. (1946), “The resistance during the movement of a two-phase system in horizontal pipes,” Izv Vse Tepl Inst, Vol. 1,pp. 16-23.

Azzopardi, B.J., Hernandez-Perez, V., Kaji, R., M.J. da Silva, M. Beyer, U. Hampel, Wire mesh sensor studies in a vertical pipe, in: HEAT 2008, Fifth International Conference on Multiphase Systems, Bialystok, Poland, 2008.

CSN Team.

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