Appraisal of the Effect of Selected Marketing Communication Models : Current School News

Appraisal of the Effect of Selected Marketing Communication Models for An Effective Rebranding Nigeria Project



Appraisal of the Effect of Selected Marketing Communication Models for An Effective Rebranding Nigeria Project.


The image of Nigeria and Nigerians has been highly corroded amongst her international public. This has a lot of implications on the country’s social, economic, technological, and political relations with other nations and people. This study was therefore motivated by the desire to discover the best marketing communications approach for rebranding programs in Nigeria.

The study had the objectives to:

  1. Ascertain the extent of application of integrated marketing communications models in the rebranding Nigeria program.
  2. Examine the extent of effectiveness of the communications models in the ‘Rebranding-Nigeria’ media advertising campaigns to curb corruption amongst Nigerians.
  3. Find out the extent to which the use of two-way symmetrical communications model/strategies can go in significantly projecting Nigeria’s image positively and internationally.
  4. Determine if the marketing communications’ models significantly improved Nigerian citizens’ positive change of values and attitude towards making the country a better marketable brand, internationally.
  5. Ascertain the extent to which the use of social media networks served as an effective complement to marketing communications tools for the success of the rebranding-Nigeria program. The explorative research design was adopted.

The population of the study was made up of all staff of the Federal Government Ministries and Agencies that manage image/rebranding programs. They have a total population estimate of 1,200,000 people. The data collection was by questionnaire.

A sample size of 400 was determined by the Taro Yamane formula. The reliability and validity test was done with Cronbach Alpha, with a value of 0.85 and an inter-item (standardized) coefficient of 0.89. The five hypotheses formulated were tested with ANOVA (hypotheses 1, 2, and 4) and Chi-Square (hypotheses 3 and 5).

The results show that: The extent of application of integrated marketing communications’ models in the Nigeria’s previous rebranding programme was significant (Fcalculated = 13.712 < Fcritical 1,9df = 9.55, p = 0.001 < 0.05). Marketing communications’ models were effective as media advertising campaign tool was significant in curbing corruption amongst Nigerian citizens in the ‘rebranding-Nigeria’ exercise. (Fcalculated = 23.110 > Fcritical 2,6df = 19.33, p = 0.001 < 0.05).


Title Page i
Declaration ii
Approval Page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of contents vi
Abstract xi


1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Research Hypotheses 9
1.6 Significance of Study 10
1.7 Scope of Study 11
1.8 Operational Definitions of Terms 12


2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 Conceptual Framework 16
2.2.1 Integrated Marketing Communications’ Model 16
2.2.2 Aida Model 21
2.2.3 Hierarchy-of-Effects Model 23
2.2.4 The DAGMAR Model 25
2.2.5 The DRIP Marketing Model 27
2.2.6 The Two-Way Symmetrical Model 29
2.2.7 Application of the Models in this Study 31
2.3 Theoretical Framework 31
2.3.1: The Theory of Reasoned Action 31
2.3.2: Social Network and Social Support Theory 32
2.3.3: The Classic Modeling Theory 33
2.3.4: Akers’ Social Learning Theory: 33
2.4 The Concept of Branding and Rebranding 34
2.5 Country Branding/Rebranding 35
2.6 History of Rebranding in Nigeria 36
2.6.1 Gowon’s Three ‘Rs’ 37
2.6.2 General Murtala Muhammed’s Zero-Tolerance to Corruption: 37
2.6.3 Buhari/Idiagbon’s WAI: 38
2.6.4 General Ibrahim Babangida’s MAMSER, 1987 38
2.6.5 Olusegun Obasanjo’s Heart of Africa Project 38
2.6.6 The Akunyili ‘Rebranding-Nigeria’ Formula 39
2.6.7 Goodluck Jonathan’s Transformation Agenda 39
2.7 Problems Militating Against Rebranding Nigeria 40
2.8 Nigerian’s Positive Image Sides 41
2.9 Corporate/National Identity 44
2.10 Creating and Maintaining a Good Image 45
2.11 Marketing Communications Explored 46
2.12 Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) 47
2.13 Promotion 47
2.14 On-line and Off-line Marketing Channels 48
2.15 From 4 P’s To 4 C’s Marketing Concept 48
2.16 Integrated Marketing Communications Tools for A Rebranding
Campaign 50
2.16.1 Advertising 50
2.16.2 Public Relations 50
2.16.3 Social Media 51
2.16.4 Direct Marketing Channels 52
2.16.5 E-mail Marketing 52
2.16.6 Mobile Phones 53
2.16.7 Direct Mail 53
2.16.8 Telemarketing 54
2.16.9 Voicemail Marketing 54
2.16.10 Direct Response TV 54
2.16.11 Direct Response Radio 55
2.16.12 Insert Media 55
2.16.14 Direct Response Magazines and Newspapers 56
2.17 Different Types of Advertising 56
2.18 Grassroots/Community Marketing 59
2.19 Empirical Review 59
2.20 Summary and Gap in Literature 61


3.1 Introduction 70
3.2 Research Design 70
3.3 Sources OF Data 70
3.4 Area of Study 71
3.5 Population of Study 72
3.6 Determination of Sample Size 72
3.7 Pilot Survey 73
3.8 Data Distribution/Collection Procedure 73
3.9 Research Instrument 74
3.10 Reliability 74
3.11 Validity of the Instrument 75
3.12 Data Analytical Tools 77


4.1: Data Presentation 79
4.2 Data Analysis and Tests of Hypotheses 92
4.3 Discussion of Findings 108


5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 Summary of Findings 116
5.3 Conclusion 118
5.4 Recommendations 118
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge 119
5.6 Areas for Further Research 121


Over the years, the image of Nigeria and Nigerians (that is, how our external publics see us) has been quite negative. The image of Nigeria and Nigerians has a lot of implications on our social, economic, technological, and political success or failure as a people. This is because our image determines how the international community assesses us and relates with us.

It is based on this that various administrations in Nigeria have embarked on one image-management project or the other, including the “Heart of Africa” program of the Obasanjo regime to the recent “Rebranding Nigeria” program, all to no avail.

Dora Akunyili (2009:2) campaigned that the National Rebranding Project is a systematic response to address the country’s negative image problem. The rebranding initiative drew heavily from the internal components of the previous image project, ‘Heart of Africa.’

It is designed to be people-centered through the Private, Public, and People’s Partnership (PPPP) paradigm shift. This campaign sought to bring about attitudinal change, reorientation, revive cultural values and instill a renewed spirit of patriotism and hope in all Nigerians. But not too many Nigerians seemed to believe in this and the style of piloting the image-management program.

Thus, a lot of public outbursts, cynicism, and criticisms greeted the rebranding Nigeria project championed by the ex-Minister of Information, Professor Dora Akunnyili. Many social commentators argue that the right marketing communications models and strategies were not employed by the implementers.


Adebija, G.X. (2010), “Rebranding Nigeria: The Result So Far” march, 2010.
Adirika, E.O., Ebue, B.C. and Nnolim, D.A. (1999), Principles of Marketing II, Enugu: John Jacobs classic Publishers.
Agbaeze, C.P. (2004), Principles and Practices of Research, Awka: Infotech Publishers.
Ajzen, Icek. and Martin Fishbein. (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood-Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Ajingi, B. (2009), The Rebranding Nigeria Project,
Ajzen, Icek. and Martin Fishbein. (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood-Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

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