Appraising Al-Maslahah Al- Mursalah As A Source Of Islamic Law : Current School News

Appraising Al-Maslahah Al- Mursalah As A Source Of Islamic Law In Judicial Proceedings Under The Maliki Law

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Appraising Al-Maslahah Al- Mursalah As A Source Of Islamic Law In Judicial Proceedings Under The Maliki Law.

ABSTRACT

Al Maslahah al mursala is a Maslahah which is neither acknowledged nor rejected by the Law Giver.

It is called (Mursalah) that is absolute or free from any restriction because it is not qualified or based on a specific Nass. al-Maslahah al-Mursalah can also be any benefit which can be inferred from the five purposes of Islamic Law.

But they are neither directly  acknowledged nor rejected by the Law Giver al-Maslah al-Mursalah is one of the sources of Islamic law recognized and applied by the Maliki School of law.

Some Muslim jurists do not recognize al-Maslah al-Mursalah as a source of Islamic law that is why it is categorized as one  of the disputed source of Islamic law.

The Maliki school is the leading jurists in terms of the application of al-Maslah al-Mursalah, .This research work examines al-Maslah al-Mursalah as a source of Islamic law, position of al-Maslah al-Mursalah in Nigerian Legal System.

Extent of powers of the Shari‟ah court judges to practice Ijtihad while applying al-Maslah al-Mursalah and practical examples of the application of al-Maslah al-Mursalah in judicial proceedings was discussed in this research.

It was observed that the Sahabah , the Tabi‟un and their followers applied al-Maslahah al-Mursalah in  most of their Fatawa and adjudication due to its importance in dealing with new issues that might have come during their time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION……………….. ii

CERTIFICATION……………… iii

DEDICATION…………………   iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………… v

ABSTRACT……………..    x

GLOSSARY……………     xi

TABLE OF CASES……………..   xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………xiii

LIST OF STATUTES………………   xiv

CHAPTER ONE…….. 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION……1

  • Background of the study………………1
  • Statement of the Problem…………… 2
  • Aim and Objectives of the Research……… 3
  • Justification and Significance of The research……..4
  • Scope of the Research……4
  • Research Method………….4
  • Literature Review……….. 5
  • Organizational Layout……..8

CHAPTER TWO…… 9

CONCEPT OF AL-MASLAHAH………………..9

  • Introduction………………. 9
    • Definition of Maslahah………….9
    • Technical meaning……………. 9

2.2…… Classification of Maslahah……….10

CHAPTER THREE………….16

Al MASLAHA  AL MURSALA AS A SOURCE OF ISLAMIC LAW………. 16

  • Introduction…………………… 16
  • Al-Maslahah al-Mursalah…………… 16
  • Scope of the application of al-Maslahah al-Mursalah…….. 18
  • Position of al-Maslahah al-Mursalah……18
  1. a) Those who support the application of  al-Maslahah al-Mursalah as a source of law……………….   18
  • Conditions for the application of al-Maslahah al-Mursalah…….  19
  • Those who reject the application of  al-Maslahah al-Mursalah  as a source of law…………….               20
  • Authorities of Those Who Support the Application of Al-Maslahah al-Mursalah as a sourc of Islamic law,      21
  • Authorities against the Application of al-Maslahah al-Mursalah……….  23
  • Nass……..  23

CHAPTER FOUR……… 25

RELEVANCE OF AL- MASLAHA  AL- MURSALAH IN JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS…  25

4.1…… Introduction…………. 25

4.1. 2.  Development during the  Period of the Prophet (S.A.W)………. 25

4.1.2 .1 Development before Hijra……… 25

4.2.2.2. Development after Hijra……………. 26

4.2.2.3 Sources of Law during the Period……………. 28

4.2.2.4. Examples of Development of  Maslahah  during this Period…………. 29

  • The Period of the  Sahabah………………………….30
    • Renown Jurists of the Sahabah……………………..31
    • The Period of Caliph Abubakr al-Siddiq (R.A)………… 31

4.3.1.4 . Caliph Umar…………………………… 32

  • Sources of Law during this Period……………………36
  • Development of al-Maslahah al-Mursalah during this Period……….36
  • Stoppage of  the   Allocations to the Muallafatu Qulubuhum……………..36
  • Suspension of permissibility of women to go to the mosques………………. 37
  • Holding three divorces in one pronouncement as three…………………  38

4.4.1. The Period of the Tabi’un………….38

  • Sources of Law during this Period………………………….. 41
  • Development of al-Maslahah  al-Mursalah During this Period….42

4.5.1 The Period of the Followers of Tabi’un   and A’immatul Mujtahidin…….. 43

  • Imam Malik………………………………………………………………………………………………………..    45
  • Sources of Shari’ah in this school……………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Some of the Books Relied Upon by this School………………………………………………………… 48
  • Places that Apply Malik Mazhab…………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Development of Maliki Jurisprudence……………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Ibn Wahab……………………………………………………………………………………………………….      49
  • Ibn al- Qasim…………………………………………………………………………………………………….     50

Ibn  al-Qasim died in 191 A.H………………………………………………………………………………………… 51

  • Suhnun……………………………………………………………………………………………………………       52
  • Ibn Habib…………………………………………………………………………………………………………      53
  • al- Baji……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..      55
  • PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF AL-MASLAHAH AL-MURSALAH……………………………………………….. 57
    • Suspension of the Hudud Penalty for Theft…………………………………………………………………       58
    • Suspension of the Application of the Law of Equality (Qisas)………………………………………….    59
    • Admissibility of the Testimony of the Non Honourable Witness………………………………………   59
    • Permissibility of Inspection of the Genitalia of a Woman by a Male Doctor……………………….. 60
    • Execution of a Group for Killing One Single Person………………………………………………………..   60
    • Giving Money to a Non Islamic State for the Release of Muslim Captives………………………….. 61
    • Deeming the Impeachement of  character of the  Sahabah as a Non Compoundable Oftence  61
    • Killing of the Ahlul bid’a………………………………………………………………………………………….         61
    • Permisibility of Giving Bribe in the Face of Being Cheated…………………………………………….      61
    • Allowing a Muslim to Inherit a Non………………………………………………………………..                     62
    • Postponement of Execution of Hadd Punishment………………………………………………………        62
  • Practical Application of Maslahah Mursla in Judicial Proceedings under the Maliki School………    63
    • Ta’azir………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….          63
    • Stipulation of Condition in the Process of Administration of Oath upon …………..                      63
    • Exempting an Unmarried Woman Who Committed Zina from the Penalty of Exile…………….64
    • Giving Priority to Maternal Females Over The Father in Matters of Custody…………………….. 64
    • Admisibitlity of Evidence of Non Honourable witnesses…………………………………………………  65
    • Commencing an Action Before a Court Situate Not in the Area where the Defendant Resides 65

4.7.8 Where a Summons Issued by a Court is Dishonored………………………………………………………              66

4.7.10 Application of Maslahah al-Mursalah in Nigerian Courts……………………………………………….            67

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………..        72

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION…………………….  72

  • Summary…………………………….                72
  • Observations…………………………..                        73
  • Recommendations………………..                       73

REFERENCES                   74

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Al-Maslahah al-Mursalah is a method employed by the jurists and Islamic scholars in dealing with new issue (al-waqi‟ah) not sanctioned by Allah or His Apostle on its face value,  while at the sametime not indicating that such an issue is unacceptable in the context of the Shari‟ah

Al-Maslahah al-Mursalah as a legal concept is also known as al- istislah, that is, public interest  or social welfare, which has been decided upon so as to serve the public interest or social welfare of the Muslim Ummah

As an important principle of the Shari‟ah, al-Maslahah al-Mursalah is capable of legitimizing new developments thoughts and institutions, the adoption of which is designed to promote the public interest and the welfare of the Muslim Ummah by securing for them some advantages and averting injury from them.3

REFERENCES

Abalkhair, S.A. (2006), al-Madkhal Ila Ilm al-Fiqh, Maktabatu Malik Fahad, Riyadh Abbasi N (2008),Ijtihad Al-istislahee. Daar Bin Hazm, Bairut .

Abdulbarr, I. Jami‟u Bayanil ilm Wa Fadhlihi, Daar Al fikr,

Abdulkarim A.N. Al-Ahkam. www.mosowarat.com assessed on 05/08/2015

Abdullahi B. A al- Hudud Wal Taazir Fi al-Islam Ind Ibn al- Qayyim Daar al- Asima Riyadh (1415 A.H)

Abdullahi S. (2006), al- madkhal ila „ilmil Fiqh , Maktabat Malik Fahad, Riyadh

Abdurrahman A.J Tarjamat al-sheikh Abdurrahman bn al-Qasim. www.saaid.net/Doat/bingasem assessed on 08/08/2015

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