Assessment of Functional Literacy Programmes for Women Empowerment : Current School News

Assessment of Functional Literacy Programmes for Women Empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria

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Assessment of Functional Literacy Programmes for Women Empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria.


The study was carried out to assess the functionality of literacy programmes for women empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria. In carrying out the study, three research questions and three null hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design.

The Population of the study comprises of 19,256 women that enrolled in functional literacy programmes in Cross River State. The sample of the study was 750 women. The instrument for data collection was a 32- item structured questionnaire titled: Assessment of Functional Literacy Programmes for Women Empowerment in Cross River State Questionnaire (AFLPWECRSQ).

The instrument for the study was face validated by three experts. The internal consistency of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha reliability method which yielded coefficients of 0.65 for vocational skills, 0.59 for basic health practices and for ICT skills for empowering women.

The data for the study were collected with the help of 9 research assistants. The 721 copies of the questionnaire administered to the respondents, were completely filled and retrieved representing 100 % rate of return. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.


Title Page         i

Approval Page             ii

Certification            iii

Dedication              iv

Acknowledgements           v

Table of Contents             vi

List of Tables          ix

Abstract                 x


Background to the study           1

Statement of the problem           13

Purpose of study                15

Significance of study                   16

Research questions                18

Hypotheses                18

Scope of study             19


Conceptual framework                       20

Assessment                        20

Functional literacy                          42

Empowerment                                 59

Theoretical framework                   73

Critical social theory                   73

Situated learning theory                      75

Functional context theory                           78

Review of Related Empirical Studies                    80

Summary of Literature Review          88


Design of study                 92

Area of study                92

Population of study             93

Sample and sampling technique           94

Instrument for data collection             94

Validation of the instrument                  95

Reliability of the instrument                  95

Process for data collection                        96

Method of data analysis                       96


Summary of results          98


Discussion of findings            111

Implications of study       115

Limitation for the study                    116

Suggestions for further studies                     117

Recommendations                  118

Conclusion                  120

REFERENCES                    122

Appendix A: Data collection instrument                   132

Appendix B: Population of the study                136

Appendix C: Sample for the study                  137

Appendix D: Results of reliability test            138

Appendix E: Result of data analysis                 140


All over the world, increasing attention is being paid to women empowerment and the need to reduce gender disparity to ensure more balanced gender participation in public and private life (Olaleye and Adeyemo, 2012). This is in view of the established socio-economic and political restrictive practices and constraints that have not allowed women to take advantage of their numbers and positions to significantly influence their environment and personal well-being; (Aderinoye, 2002).

Such barriers include unemployment, lack of employable skills, low level of educational attainment, poverty and ingrained attitudes of exclusion that marginalize their role in the decision making process in their local communities. Indeed, Hodges (2001) believed that sexism is still the most serious barrier to women advancement in economic, political and educational endeavours.

This means that gender discrimination is still an impediment to women empowerment. To address the persistent problem of poverty and social exclusion among marginalised groups, there is a fundamental need for public authorities, together with other stakeholders to intervene to guarantee learning opportunities to enable those at risk to achieve competencies (EU PLA Journal Summary Report 2008 on adult Literacy).


Adepoju, T. & Kolawole, O. O (2010). Digital divide or digital dividend? A developing world Perspective. Paper presented at the National Open University of Nigeria.

Aderinoye , R.A (2002). Literacy education in Nigeria. Ibadan: University of Ibadan Publishing House.

Aderinoye, R. A. (2004). Innovation in mass literacy promotion in Nigeria: The intervention of the Cuban Radio Literacy Model. 2005 ICDE International Conference. New Delhi: 19-23.

Agbalajobi, E.D (2010).Women’s participation and the political process in Nigeria: problems and prospects, Nigeria: African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 4(2), 75-82.

Aina, I. O (2005). Women, culture and society in Amadu, Sesay and Adetanwa Odebiyi (eds). Nigerian women in society and development. Ibadan: Dokun Publishing House.

Akomolafe, C. O and Adegun, O. A. (2014). Promoting ICT Opportunities for Women Empowerment in Nigeria: Issues and Strategies. Unpublished Research article, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti.

CSN Team.

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