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Bioconversion of Urea and Methionine Supplemented Sorghum Beer Residue into Protein Biomass for Broiler Rations

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Bioconversion of Urea and Methionine Supplemented Sorghum Beer Residue into Protein Biomass for Broiler Rations.


In a laboratory study aimed at determining the effect on nutrient composition of sorghum beer residue (SBR) supplemented with urea and methionine and passed through a 2nd fermentation process.

Four (4) levels of urea (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0%) and four (4) levels of methionine (0.29, 0.33,   0.37, and 0.41%)were mixed which resulted in a total of sixteen

(16) urea to methionine mixing ratios. Sixteen (16) samples of SBR were treated with the 16 urea and methionine ratios and subjected to 4 days fermentation with bovine rumen liquor as inoculum.

SBRsupplementation with urea to methionine ratio of 1.5: 0.37 % after 4 days fermentation resulted in significant increase in protein biomass from 21.73  to 38.19%.

The protein biomass produced contained all the essential amino acids which were superior compared to those of groundnut cake (GNC) and other feed ingredients.

In an experimental trial, the effect of feeding urea and methionine supplemented and refermented SBR (RSBR) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels in broiler chickens starter and finisher diets were investigated.

Five dietary treatments were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric to provide 23 and 20.5% crude protein (CP) for starter and finisher diets respectively.

Three hundred and forty-five (345) day- old broiler chicks (Zam breed) were randomly allocated to 15 pens in groups of 23 birds per pen.

The five diets (replicated three times) were randomly allocated to the pens of broilers on deep litter concrete flooring.


1.1 Background of the Study

According to Food Security Guide (FSG) (2011), over one billion people experience the hardship that hunger imposes. Today these figures continue to rise even amidst the riches of the 21st century.

With the increasing population growth, economic instability and climate change, today food security has become an urgent challenge for national and global governance.

When the FAO Cereal Index doubled in 2008 according to Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) (2011), food security became a global crisis.

That the world’s poorest household spends 60- 100% of their income on food; without any mechanism to cope with rising prices other than to reduce the volume or nutritional quality of their consumption.

At the 2009 World Summit on food security, richer countries were called to reorganize their misplaced priorities in order to tackle global food insecurity.

Despite many similar political commitments, the number of people lacking access to minimum diet rose from 824 million in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) baseline year 1990 to 1,020 million in 2009 (CFSC, 2011).


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Barry,  S.  (2006).  The  Farming  Handbook,  ACTA.  Sharing  knowledge,  improving  rural livelihoods. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. 431pp

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Bedford, M.R.  and  H.  L.  Classen.  (1992).  Reduction  of  intestinal  viscosity  through  manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in  improved   growth rate and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. Journal of Nutrition 122: 560–569.

Bedford, M.R. and H. L. Classen (1993). An in-vitro assay for prediction of broiler  intestinal  viscosity and growth when fed rye based diets in the presence of exogenous enzymes. Poultry Science. 72: 137-143

Bello, A. O. (1984).The use of Agro-industrial by-products in livestock feeding. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 11(1):22-30

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