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Colonial Economy of Ibi And Wukari Divisions, 1900-1960

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Colonial Economy of Ibi And Wukari Divisions, 1900-1960.

ABSTRACT  

This study analyses the impact of the Colonial Economy on Ibi and Wukari Divisions during the period 1900 to 1960. It examines the history of change in the economies and societies that make up Ibi and Wukari Divisions.

Thus, it focuses on the socio-economic impact of the various British colonial economic policies on the area of study and how they undermined the process of growth and consequent development in the local economy by turning industrial and agricultural production to fend for the capitalist need for raw materials and markets for European products.

The work argues that this particular development in the history of the states and societies in the Middle Benue Basin, south of the Benue River, such as Wukari State, Takum and Donga Chiefdoms, was central to the state of socio-economic challenge that bedevilled the area.

The socio-economic backwardness of the area is the springboard of the social disturbances that have engulfed this region, which other works have attempted to offer explanation. However, no substantive economic explanation has been given to explain this social developme nt in the area.

In fact, to the best of the present writer‟s knowledge, no historical piece has emerged to assess the reality of the colonial history of Ibi and Wukari Divisions to explain the state of development in the area. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration…………i
Certification………….ii
Acknowledgements………iii
Dedication………..iv
TableofContents………..v-vii
ListofTables…………viii
Listof figures………ix
Abbreviations………x-xi
AGlossaryofTerms………..xii-xiv
Abstract……………..xv
NotesonSources……….xvi-xx

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.0Introduction————1
1.1 Statement of the Research Problem——1-2
1.2 Scope and Limitations of the Study——–3-5
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study———– 5-6
1.4Justification for the Study——— 6-7
1.5Theoretical Framework——-8-11
1.6 Literature Review———-11-22
1.7 Research Methodology——- 22-23
1.8 Conclusion———-23

CHAPTER TWO: LAND AND PEOPLE OF THE AREA ON THE EVE OF BRITISH COLONISATION
2.0Introduction——24
2.1 Geographical Background——–24
2.1.1 Location and Boundaries——-24-29
2.1.2Climate——-30-31
2.1.3Rainfall——31-32
2.1.4Relief———32-35
2.1.5 Vegetation—–35-37
2.1.6Drainage——-37-39
2.2 Migrations and Settlements———39
2.2.1 Jukun——39-41
2.2.2 Abakwariga—–42-43
2.2.3 Kuteb———-43-45
2.2.4 Ichen (Kentu)——45-47
2.2.5 Tiv————48-49
2.2.6 Chamba———49-52
2.3 Conclusion——52

CHAPTER THREE: STATE AND ECONOMY BEFORE 1900
3.0 Introduction———-53-54
3.1 State Systems and Resource Mobilisation——-54
3.1.1 Kwararafa Confederacy——-54-58
3.1.2 Wukari State——-58-61
3.1.3 Takum Chiefdom——61-62
3.1.4 The Kingdom of Donga——–62-64
3.2 Production and Distribution—-64-65
3.2.1 Land Use and Control———65-66
3.2.2 Labour Mobilisation and Organisation——-66-68
3.2.3 Agriculture———68-70
3.2.4 Handicraft Industries——–70-73
3.2.5 Mining Industry——–73-75
3.2.6 Fishing and Hunting——75-76
3.2.7 Trade———76-82
3.2.8 Penetration of European Capital——83-95
3.3 Conclusion ——–95

CHAPTER FOUR: BRITISH COLONIAL OCCUPATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF
COLONIAL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES, 1900-1934
4.0 Introduction——96
4.1 British Colonial Occupation, 1900-1913———-97-100
4.2 British Colonial Administrative System and Territorial Reorganisations,
1904-1934———100-103
4.2.1Lugardian Principle of Native Administration and the Formation of
Ibi Division, 1904-1919——103-105
4.2.2 Palmer‟s Policy and the Creation of Wukari Division, 1920-1929—-105-111
4.2.3 Cameron‟s Policy and the Formation of Wukari Federation,
1930-1934———111-114
4.3 Establishment of Colonial Instruments of Coercion, 1900-1920——-115
4.3.1 Native Police——115-116
4.3.2 Native Courts—–116-119
4.4 Conclusion———-119

CHAPTER FIVE: THE COLONIAL ECONOMY, 1904-1945
5.0 Introduction——-120
5.1 Promulgation of Colonial Economic Policies, 1904-1930—–120
5.1.1 Colonial Taxation———120-125
5.1.2 Colonial Currency————125-127
5.1.3Colonial Labour———–128-129
5.1.4Colonial Land Policy——-129-130
5.1.5 Colonial Agricultural Policy—-130-132
5.2 Colonial Commercial Enterprise——-132-137
5.3 The Colonial Economy and World Events, 1914-1945—-137
5.3.1 The First World War, 1914-1919———137-143
5.3.2 The Great World Economic Depression, 1929-1939——143-148
5.3.3 The Second World War, 1939-1945———148-150
5.4 Responses to Colonial Economic Policies, 1916-1939——150
5.4.1 Mairiga Revolt, 1916—–150-153
5.4.2 Nyambuan Movement, 1939—–153-157
5.5Conclusion—-157

CHAPTER SIX: COLONIAL ECONOMICCONTRADICTIONS AND “DEVELOPMENTS”, 1945-1960
6.0Introduction———-158
6.1Social Infrastructure——–159-163
6.2 Colonial Education—–163-169
6.3 Migrations and Emergence of New Settlements——-169-171
6.4Destruction of the Independent Handicraft Industries—–171-178
6.5 Emergence of a Mono-Cultural Economy——–178-183
6.6 Conclusion———183

GENERAL CONCLUSION————-184-186
BIBLIOGRAPHY————-187-197

INTRODUCTION  

This study focuses on the colonial economy of Ibi and Wukari Divisions during the period 1900 to 1960. It analyses the nature, operation and the general impact of the colonial economy.

It also examines the transformations occasioned by colonialism and, of course, the colonial agricultural, commercial and industrial sectors of the economy.

Thus, the study analyses the impact of the colonial economy on socio-economic life of the people in the area of study during the period 1900-1960.

This chapter, therefore, provides the general background to the study by stating the research problem, describing the scope and limitations of the study and pointing out the aim and objectives of the study.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abubakar, B.Z. and G.F. Useini, “The Abakwariga and their Contributions in the Economic and Educational Development of some North-Eastern States of Nigeria”, A Paper presented at the Summit on History of North-East Nigeria, Historical Society of Nigeria, Jalingo, September, 2012.

Abubakar, H. S. J., “Migrations in the Middle Benue Valley (Muri) and their Impact in Urbanization, 1833-1970: Jalingo, a Case Study,” Seminar Paper,Department of History, ABU Zaria, 1977.

Abubakar, S., “Pre-colonial Government and Administration among the Jukun”.Inaugural Lecture Series, No. 38, Department of History, University of Maiduguri,1986.

Ade, R.G.,“The Impact of Colonial Rule on Igede Economy, 1910-1930”, A Research Essay, Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 1975.

Alahira, H. A., “Colonial Mineral Ordinances and the Penetration of Mining Capital in Jos Plateau, 1900- 1960: An Analysis”, A Seminar Paper Presented to the Department of History, ABU Zaria, 1988.

Abba, A., “The Political Economy of the Yola Metropolis 1809-1914”, M.A. Thesis, Department of History, ABU, Zaria, 1985.

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