Community-Based Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Malaria Using : Current School News

Community-Based Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Malaria Using Rapid Diagnostic Test and Management with Artemisinin –Based Combination Therapy in Taraba State- Nigeria

Filed in Current Projects, Zoology Project Topics by on October 11, 2020

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Community-Based Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Malaria Using Rapid Diagnostic Test and Management with Artemisinin –Based Combination Therapy in Taraba State- Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional study was conducted for fifteen (15) months (May, 2012 to July, 2013) to assess the efficacy of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in diagnosis followed by treatment of childhood malaria with Artemisinin – Based Combination Therapy (ACT) at community level  in Taraba State.

A total of 840 symptomatic children aged two months to thirteen years were presented for diagnosis with RDT kits by care givers at the designated clinics and  at community levels.

The 656 RDT positive children recorded in this study were treated with Artesunate-Amodiaquine.

Microscopic slides of the blood of all the children  presented  for RDT were equally prepared and examined. Another 333 symptomatic children aged 2  months to thirteen years served as control in one clinic.

All positive cases were reviewed, seven days after drug administration.

Three hundred and nine (309) RDT positive children were followed-up for adherence to treatment regime. Intradermal smear and peripheral blood films were prepared for 59 children previously confirmed to be positive and were examined after treatment.

Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to determine the perception of malaria and treatment preference of community.

INTRODUCTION 

Malaria, a term meaning bad air was so named because of its presumed association with obnoxious air of swamps especially at night (Chandler and Read, 1961).

Due also to its association with swamps in humid regions of the world, it was  called  marsh  fever (Greenwood and Pickering, 1999).

It is a mosquito borne protozoan  disease  and  is  well known as one of the world’s worst scourges. About 56% of the world population live in malarious areas and most are subject to frequent infections, which become less severe with increasing age because of the previously developed immunity.

It is estimated that 100 million symptomatic infections occur annually (Renato, 1991). Malaria is a  leading  cause  of  mortality and morbidity worldwide especially in pregnant women and children living in sub- Saharan Africa where 90% of malaria deaths occur (WHO/UNICEF, 2003).

Recent estimates by WHO suggest that 3.3 billion people are at risk of malaria in 106 countries and territories (World Malaria Report, 2011).

In 2010, about 216 million cases of malaria occurred and resulted in 655,000 deaths of which 91% is in Sub-Saharan Africa and 86% were children under five years worldwide (World  Malaria  Report,  2011).

REFERENCES

Autino, B., Yolanda, C., Castelli, F. and Donatella, T.  (2012).  Pathogenesis of malaria  in tissue and blood. Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, 4(1): 20 – 26.

Babiker,   H.   A.   (1998). Unstable   malaria   in  Sudan:  the   influence   of   the   dry season.Plasmodium  falciparum  population  in the  unstable  malaria  area  of eastern  Sudan is stable and genetically complex.

Baker, J., Mc Carthy, M. and Gatton, E. (2005). Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2) based rapid diagnostic test.

Batwala, V., Pascal, M. and Fred, N. (2010). Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres? Malaria Journal, 9: 349 – 409.

Beadle, C., Long, G. W., Weiss, W. R., McElroy, P. D., Maret, S. M. and Oloo, A. J. (1994). Diagnosis of malaria by detection of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 antigen with a rapid dipstick antigen-capture assay. Lancet, 343: 564 – 568.

Beck, H. P. (1999). How does molecular epidermiology help to understand malaria? Tropical Medicine and International Health, 4: 1 – 3.

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