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Contribution of Motor Vehicle Emissions to Air Pollution

 – Contribution of Motor Vehicle Emissions to Air Pollution –

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ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at determine the contribution of motor vehicle emissions along some busy roads in Kaduna metropolis. The Crowcon Tetra III was used to measure the concentrations of air pollutants such as CO, NO2, and SO2.

Also Vehicle count was conducted manually to determine the vehicle volumes at the sampling points. The results indicated that the concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2.measured were ranged 29.1- 37.0ppm, 0.03-0.05 and 0.0037-0.051 respectively.

With few exceptions, at some sampling points were all above the National Environmental Standards and Regulatory Enforcement Agency (NESREA) recommended safe limits especially during the afternoon-evening periods.

Also the level of pollutants across all the sampling points increases with traffic volume. The study therefore established strong statistical evidence that traffic volume affects the pollutants concentrations at all sampling points.

This implies that motor vehicle emissions in Kaduna metropolis is not within the safe limits, and that motor traffic-related pollution in Kaduna metropolis is a potential hazard to the environment and human health.

It was recommended that, for the benefit of public health and sustainability of the natural functioning of ecosystems motorization growth should be largely checked by environmental regulations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………… i

Declaration………………….. ii

Certification……………………… iii

Dedication…………………………….. iv

Acknowledgements………………… v

Abstract………………………… viii

Table of Contents……………… ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study………….. 1
  • Statement of Problem………………… 5
  • Research Questions………………………… 7
  • Aim and Objectives of the Study……………….. 7
  • Research Hypothesis…………………….. 7
  • Research Justification………………….. 8
  • Scope of the Study…………………. 9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Introduction……………. 10
  • Conceptual Framework…………………….. 10
    • Air pollution…………………………. 10
    • Pollution and the Environment………………. 11
    • Ways of Environmental Pollution…………………… 12
    • Pollution of the Atmosphere by Gases and Solid Substances………….. 13
    • Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality………………… 13
    • Air Quality and other Related Air Pollutants……….. 15
    • Classification of Air Pollutants and their Trends……… 16
  • Literature Review……………….. 19
    • Vehicular Emission and Health Implication……… 19
    • Vehicular Emission in Developing Countries…………… 21
    • Vehicle Emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa………………. 23
    • Vehicular Emission in Some Major Nigeria Cities……….. 24

CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction………………….. 26
  • The Study Area…………………….. 26
    • Location……………………… 26

3.2.2.  Climate…………………… 28

  • Soils and Vegetation………………. 29
  • Drainage, Relief and Geology……………………. 29
  • Population………………………. 31
  • Settlement Pattern………………….. 31
  • Socio-Economic Activities…………… 32
  • Methodology……………………. 34

3.3.1    Types of Data……… 34

  • Primary Data…………………….. 34
  • Secondary Data……………………. 34
  • Sources of Data………………………… 34
  • Equipment Used for the Study…………….. 35
    • Hardware Equipment……….. 35
    • Software…………………………. 35
  • Methods of Data Collection………. 35
    • Sampling Procedure……………….. 35
  • Instrument Calibration Methods……………. 37
    • Gas Test…………………………. 37
    • Laboratory Calibration Test…………….. 37
    • Field Calibration Test………………. 38
  • Method of Data Analysis……………….. 38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Introduction………………. 41
  • Air Pollution Levels in Kaduna Metropolis………. 41
    • Carbon Monoxide (CO) Levels……….. 42
      • Mean Variation in Carbon Monoxide (CO) Levels………… 44
    • Nitrogen Oxide (NO2) Levels………….. 44
      • Mean Variation in Nitrogen Oxide (NO2) Levels…….. 46
    • Sulphur Oxide (SO2) Levels………………….. 46
      • Mean Variation in Sulphur Oxide (SO2) Levels………. 48
    • Discussion…………………… 56
    • Hypothesis Test………………… 59
      • Hypothesis Ho 1……………. 59
      • Hypothesis Ho 2……………. 63
      • Hypothesis Ho 3……………… 64

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Introduction………………. 68
  • Summary of Major Findings……………. 68
  • Conclusion…………………. 69
  • Recommendations…………….. 70

References………….. 72

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The term pollution refers to any change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or soil that can affect the health, survival or activities of humans or other forms of life in an undesirable way (United State Environmental Protection Agency USEPA, 2001).

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air by discharge of harmful substances, which can cause health problems including burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated throat and breathing problems (USEPA 1994).

Also the World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) defines air pollution as the disequilibrium of air caused due to the introduction of foreign elements to human’s natural and manmade sources to the air so that it becomes injurious to biological communities.

In general air pollution involved an introduction of pollutants into the earth’s atmosphere such as chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause discomfort, diseases,

including burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated throat and breathing problems, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment.

REFERENCES

Abam F.I. and Unachuku, G.O. (2009). Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality in Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 34(4): 1450-216X. 

Abdulkareem, A.S. and Kovo A.S. (2006). Urban Air Pollution by Process Industry In Kaduna, Nigeria. Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria AU Journal of Technology. 9(3): 172-174.

Akpu, B. (2012). An Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Gowth of Kaduna Metropolis and its Enviromental Consequences in Kaduna, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Dissertation Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano.

Ashton, T. S. (1948). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, London: Oxford University Press, 1948. In: Daly, A. and Zannetti, P. (2007). An Introduction to Air ollution- Definitions, Classification, and History. Chapter 1 of AMBIENT AIR OLLUTION. 

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