Design And Performance Analysis Of Outer Jacket Allihn And Graham Glas : Current School News

Design And Performance Analysis Of Outer Jacket Allihn And Graham Glass Condensers



– Design And Performance Analysis Of Outer Jacket Allihn And Graham Glass Condensers –

A condenser is a device designed to separate one or more components of a vapor mixture by reducing a gas or vapor to its liquid form.

This study was undertaken with a view of investigating the design and performance analysis of outer jacket Allihn and Graham glass condensers. AutoCAD design tool was used in designing Allihn and Graham condensers, varying the number of bulbs from one to ten (1-10) on the outer jacket.

The following specifications were kept constant: outer bulbs size of diameter θ 48mm, distance from the bulb to bulb length of 18mm inner tubeθ 09/679mm, outer tube length θ 40/720 mm, bulbs and tubes of θ 26/60mm, outlets and inlets θ 09/1.5mm and the length of quick fit 84mm with the exception of Graham condensing models which inner tubes are coils.

For types “As” Allihnand Graham condensers, the outlet, and inlet tubes were joined to their jackets while for the types “Bs” Allihn and Graham models, the outlet and the inlet tubes were joined directly to their inner tubes.

Twenty (20) assorted pieces of each type “As” and “Bs” of these modified structures of Allihn and Graham condensing models were fabricated. The performances of these condensers were determined using extraction procedures involving the leaves of Lawsonia inermis (natural dye) with acetone as solvent.

The used solvent was recovered and distillation of borehole water was carried out and the distillate was collected for a period of 1hour at intervals of 5 minutes each. Results of extraction showed that the highest yield of43.00% was obtained in condensing model with 7 bulbs Graham type “As” and type “Bs” model with 41.36%.

Allihn type “Bs” model with 7 bulbs also gave a yield of 39.99% while the Allihn “As” model was 39.95%. The highest volume of solvent recovery was in Allihntype “As” condensing glass models with 4 bulbs giving a total recovery (84.66%) out of 300mL used for the extraction.

Type “Bs” Allihn model with 4 and 5 bulbs recovered a total of80% respectively. In the case of the Graham models, a model with 2 bulbs on the outer jacket for both types “As” and “Bs” gave the highest volume 85% and 79.33% respectively.


Cover page i
Flyleaf ii
Title page iii
Declaration iv
Certification v
Dedication vi
Acknowledgment vii
Abstract ix
Table of Contents xi
List of Figures xv
List of Tables xviii
List of Plates xix
List of Appendices xx
Abbreviations and Symbols xxii
Introduction 1
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Research Problem Statement 4
1.3 Aim and Objectives 6
1.4 Justification of Study 6
1.5 Significance of Study 7
1.6 Theoretical Frame Work 7
1.7 Scope of Study 8
1.8 Hypothesis 8
Literature Review 9
2.1 Historical Perspective of Scientific Glass Technology Practice 9
2.2 Scientific Glass Blowing 12
2.2.1 Borosilicate glass 12
2.2.2 The physicochemical properties of glass 13
2.2.3 Mechanical strength 14
2.2.4 Chemical durability 15
2.2.5 Thermal expansion 18
2.2.6 Thermal shock/ thermal endurance 20
2.3 Heat Exchangers 22
2.3.1 Condenser 22
2.3.2 Design overview of condenser 24
2.3.3 Condenser principles 24
2.3.4 Basics classification of condensers 25
2.3.5 Liebig condensers 25
2.3.6 Allihn condensers 25
2.3.7 Graham condensers 26
2.4 Distillation 26
2.4.1 Setting-up distillation apparatus 28
2.4.2 Simple distillation 31
2.4.3 Fractional distillation 32
2.4.4 Vacuum distillation 32
2.4.5 Steam distillation 33
2.5 Separation of Mixture by Extraction 33
2.5.1 Extraction 34
2.5.2 Soxhlet extractor 35
2.5.3 The principle of Soxhlet extractor 35
2.5.4 Advantages of Soxhlet extraction 37
2.5.5 Natural dyes 37
2.5.6 Acetone 41
2.5.7 Historical background of solvent recovery 41
2.5.8 Solvent extraction 44
2.5.9 Liquid-liquid phase separation 45
2.5.10 Distillation 45
2.5.11 Importance of solvent recovery 46
2.6 Water 46
Methodology 49
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Equipment 49
3.3 Materials 50
3.4 Procedure for Working Drawing on Auto-CAD Design of Condensers 51
3.5 Modified Allihn and Graham Condensers Models 52
3.6 Method of Fabrication of Allihn and Graham Glass Condensers 74
3.7 Fabrication of Allihn Condenser. 74
3.8 Fabrication of Grahamcondenser 75
3.9. Extraction of Natural dye using Modified Condensers. 78
3.10 Recovery of Solvent using modified condensers 79
3.11 Simple distillation using modified condensers 79
Results 81
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Extraction 81
4.3 Solvent Recovery 84
4.4. Distillation 87
4.5 Statistical Analysis of Extraction, Solvent Recovery and Distillation 91
Discussion 94
5.1 Percentage Yield of Extraction 94
5.2 Recovery of Solvent 95
5.3 Distillation Yield 97
5.4 Statistical Analyses of Extraction, Solvent Recovery and Distillation 99
5.5 Findings 101
5.6 Proof of Hypothesis 103
Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation 104
6.1 Summary 104
6.2 Conclusion 105
6.3 Recommendation 106
6.4 Contribution to knowledge 106
References 108


Background of the study

According to MacFarlane and Martin (2004) that, twenty (20) well-known experiments which transformed our world were haphazardly picked and it was found that, fifteen (15)of them could not have been possible without glass kits and condenser is one of those kits.

A condenser is a heat exchanger and it uses the principle of heat transfer. A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, (from one medium to another), or between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and thermal contact.

In heat exchangers, there are usually no external heat and work interactions(Stepanopolulous, 2005; Stonecypher, 2009).

The science of heat transfer predicts that energy transfer which takes place between material bodies as a result of the temperature gradient is known as thermodynamics.

One of the most important fields of thermodynamics is heat transfer which relates to the transfer of heat between two media.

The concept of heat transfer is used in a wide range of devices like heat exchangers, evaporators, condensers, radiators, coolers, and heaters. (Stepanopoulous, 2005; Khosravy, 2010; Gonah, 2014)According to Khosravy (2010), thermodynamics can be defined as the study of energy, energy transformation, and its relation to matter.


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CSN Team.



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