Development of a Post-Occupancy Evaluation Toolkit for Student Hostels. : Current School News

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Development of a Post-Occupancy Evaluation Toolkit for Student Hostels

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Development of a Post-Occupancy Evaluation Toolkit for Student Hostels.

ABSTRACT

The culture of assessing the quality and performance of buildings greatly increased in recent years and has become widely practiced in developed countries. In that regard, several Post-occupancy protocols and toolkits have been developed for different building types and purposes.

However, these Post-occupancy toolkits cannot be fully utilized in developing countries. Instead, the question arises about global similarities and differences, especially in building users’ attitudes and preferences.

With these in mind this research sought to develop a Post-occupancy toolkit for evaluating student hostels specific to the Nigerian Environment by answering the research question, ‘How can all user groups be included in the evaluation of on-campus student housing facility in Nigeria?’

The method involved observation of the activities and interactions within the student hostels and interviews of both students and staff. This process produced themes that were validated using structured questionnaires.

The results of the questionnaires based on users’ feedback produced key areas (strategic value and functional performance requirements) the developed Post-occupancy toolkit addressed.

Findings from the questionnaire show that all user groups considered security as the most important student need in the hostel facility in Nigeria. Furthermore, the research established that the room as a design space according to all users is the most important space in the design of a hostel facility.

The research concluded by developing a Post-occupancy Evaluation toolkit solely based on the feedback of the user groups on what was considered most relevant in the student on-campus housing and which captures all stakeholder opinions in the evaluation of hostel facilities. The research recommends that security be given topmost priority in the design of hostel facilities in Nigeria.

In addition, functional requirements such as adequacy of space, environmental quality, aesthetic appeal, routine maintenance, privacy, serenity, comfort, health and safety, population density, handicapped accessibility should be considered in the design of all spaces in the hostel facility.

Finally, the research recommends that the management of Ahmadu Bello University and similar institutions in Nigeria through design, should ensure that the hostel facilities create an environment where academic performance, fostering mutual interest, intellectual stimulation, inspiration, institutional loyalty, cooperation, contact with others, unity and character development needs of the student are met.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ……….. i
DECLARATION…………….. ii
CERTIFICATION …………… iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……. iv
DEDICATION…………….. v
ABSTRACT ……………….. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS …….. vii
LIST OF TABLES …………………. x
LIST OF FIGURES …………… xii
LIST OF APPENDICES ………….. xiii
ABBREVIATIONS ……… xiv
1.0 INTRODUCTION……………. 1
1.1 Background of the Study ……………. 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem ……. 4
1.3 Justification of the Study …….. 5
1.4 Aim and Objectives. ……………… 7
1.4.1 Aim ………. 7
1.4.2 Objectives …….. 7
1.5 Methodology ………… 7
1.5.1 Sample size ……… 8
1.5.2 Data collection technique ……. 10
1.5.3 Data analysis …………… 11
1.6 Scope And Delimitations ……. 11
1.6.1 Scope ………………. 11
1.6.2 Limitations ………….. 11
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW …………… 12
2.1 Origin and History Of Post-Occupancy Evaluation ………… 12
2.2 Concepts of POE ………………………… 13
2.2.1 Levels of conducting POE ………… 15
2.2.2 Benefits of POE …………………… 16
2.3 Drivers and Inhibitors of the POE Process ……………….. 17
2.4 The Construction Industry, Construction Management, and POE ……………….. 20
2.5 Application of POE in Advanced/ Developed Countries …… 24
2.5.1 POE in the UK….. 24
2.5.2 POE in Brazil …………. 26
2.5.3 POE in America ……………………… 27
2.6 POE in Developing Countries ………….. 27
2.6.1 POE in Malaysia ………….. 27
2.6.2 POE in Nigeria ………………….. 28
2.7 POE and Student Housing Facilities ………. 29
2.8 Educational Facilities Ergonomics ……….. 30
2.8.1 Performance levels: a hierarchy of users’ needs and priorities…… 31
2.8.2 Housing facilities and their effect on student learning and development …… 33
2.9 POE Protocols …………. 34
2.9.1 BREEM ……………….. 34
2.9.2 AUDE ……………….. 34
2.9.3 Survey by the center for the built environment (CBE) ……… 37
2.9.4 Post-Occupancy Review of Buildings and their Engineering (PROBE) … 37
2.10 The Nigerian Academic Environment …….. 40
2.11 Summary of Review ………. 42
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……… 43
3.1 Research Design ………… 43
3.1.1 Rationale for the methodology/philosophical backing for research ……… 43
3.2. Research Methods …………. 45
3.3 Desk Research/ Literature Review ….. 46
3.4 Field Survey ……….. 46
3.4.1 Study area………….. 46
3.4.2 Sample population ………….. 47
3.4.3 Sample size ……………….. 48
3.5 Data Collection Techniques … 50
3.6 Analysis of Case Study Data ……….. 53
3.7 Developing of the Post Occupancy Evaluation toolkit …. 55
3.7.1 Stakeholders/diversity of voices ………. 55
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, AND DISCUSSION …….. 57
4.1 Preamble …………… 57
4.2 Responses of Students ……. 58
4.2.1 Physical challenge of student respondents ……… 58
4.2.2 School ethos/strategic value ………. 59
4.2.3 Functional performance requirements. 60
4.3 Responses of Hostel Management Staff… 69
4.3.1 School ethos/strategic value … 69
4.3.2 Functional performance requirement …….. 70
4.4 Responses of Visitors …….. 74
4.4.1 School ethos/strategic value ……. 75
4.4.2 Functional performance ……… 76
4.5 Observation and Interviews ………. 84
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS ………. 92
5.1 Summary of Findings ………. 92
5.2 Conclusions …………….. 93
5.3 Recommendations …………….. 94
5.4 Recommendations for Further Study ………. 95
REFERENCES ….. 97
APPENDIX I ……… 104
APPENDIX II …………….. 105
APPENDIX III …….. 111
APPENDIX IV …….. 117
APPENDIX V …….. 119
APPENDIX VI ………………. 129

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Human shelters were at first, very simple and perhaps, lasted only a few days or months. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as an igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly after the advent of agriculture, when people began to stay in one place for long periods (Onu, 2009).

The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage were housed in separate buildings. Although design and construction have become highly sophisticated and are often computer-directed, this complex apparatus rests on preindustrial traditions inherited from millennia during which most structures were lived by the people who elected them.

The technical demands on building remain the fundamental ones; to keep out enemies, to avoid gravity, and to prevent discomforts caused by an excess of heat or cold or by the intrusion of rain, wind, or vermin (Anderson, 2008).

A building must do what it was designed to do – not just provide shelter but also be an environment where people can live, work and achieve. Recent thinking demands that buildings are constructed to fulfill specific needs (Preiser and Vischer, 2005).

Like any other living species, humans are organisms adjusting to a dynamic, ever-changing environment, and the interactive nature of relationships between people and their surroundings should be considered in the design. In the same vein, Leaman (2002) opined that almost all users treat buildings as a means to an end and are not really interested in design or management matters.

He also stated that they want to carry out tasks and activities as easily and effectively as possible with the least inconvenience to themselves.

REFERENCES

The Free Encyclopedia. (2014). Retrieved February 13, 2014, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmadu_Bello_University A.B.U. (2013). Ahmadu Bello University. Retrieved from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria: http://portal.abu.edu.ng/accommAdmin/roomsetup.php?pageNum_roomsetup=8&totalRows_roomsetup=4240
Adamchak, S. (2000). A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs. Washington DC.
Adewumi, Y., Famuyiwa, F., & Harrison, E. (2009). Post Occupancy Evaluation of Facilities in Nigerian Private Universities: A Case Study. Procs 25th Annual ARCOM Conference, (pp. 505-514). Nottingham UK.
Agagu, O. (2006). Application of User feedback technique in facilities management. University of Lagos, Department of Estate Management.

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