Dissolved Sediment Delivery by the Samaru Stream into the Ahmadu Bello : Current School News

Dissolved Sediment Delivery by the Samaru Stream into the Ahmadu Bello University Reservior, Zaria, Nigeria

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Dissolved Sediment Delivery by the Samaru Stream into the Ahmadu Bello University Reservior, Zaria, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

 This study assessed the dissolved sediment delivery by the Samaru stream into the Kubanni reservoir by monitoring the stream for seven months. The study assessed the dissolved sediment concentration, stream discharges using the USDH 48 sampler to collect sediment samples, an estimate of the dissolved sediment yield, and the dissolved mineral component of the sediment by the use of an XRF analysis.

The AV method was employed for the discharge measurement of the Stream which gave a mean value of 0.2528m3/s and an annual total discharge value of 4,850,232m3/yr.

The lowest discharge of 0.057m3/s was recorded in April and the highest discharge of 4.133m3/s was recorded in August. Regressing rainfall on discharges shows that there is a strong direct relationship between the two at 0.05 significant levels.

The relationship is strong because both r (0.913) and r2 (0.834) values are significantly high. Dissolved sediment concentration (Cd1) values obtained vary from a minimum value of 20mg/l to a maximum value of 120mg/l with a mean value of 58.87mg/l and a total sum of 4180mg/l.

The rating equation relationship shows that there is a weak but direct relationship between Cd1 and Q at 0.05 significant level because both values of r (0.122) and r2 (0.015) are low. Derived dissolved sediment discharge (Qd) obtained vary from a minimum value of 1.14mg/s to a maximum value of 325.44mg/s with a mean value of 44.52mg/s and a total value of 3162mg/s.

Relating Qd with Cd1 shows that there is a direct relationship between the two with the values of r (0.545) and r2 (0.296) and also, Qd and Q were related and the rating curve gives a very strong relationship with a straight line starting from the origin and both values of r (0.866) and r2 (0.749) are high.

Chapter one: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The importance of water, sanitation, and hygiene for health and development has been reflected globally in series of international policy forums.

One of such conferences was the world water conference held in mar del Plata, Argentina in 1977 and the international conference on primary health care, held in alama-ata, Kazakhstan in 1978, which launched the water supply and sanitation campaigns of 1981-1990, as well as the millennium development goals adopted by the general assembly of the united nations (un) in 2000 and also, the outcome of the Johannesburg world summit for sustainable development in 2002.

In addition, the un general assembly developed the period from 2005 to 2015 as the international decade for action,‘‘ water for life‘‘. Most recently, the UN general assembly declared safety and clean drinking water and sanitation a human right essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights (who, 2011)

However, despite the numerous calls by the international community on the importance of water to life. Water still remains a scarce commodity in the developing world. Water is a natural substance that covers 71% of the earth’s surface (central intelligence agency report [cia], 2013) and it is vital for all known forms of life on earth.

96.5% of the planet’s water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air) and precipitation.

Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the earth’s freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products (Gleick,1993).

REFERNCES

Abdulrafiu, B.G. (1977) Land use changes Association with the New Galma Dam in Zaria. Unpublished B.Sc. Dissertation, Geography Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.Abolude, D.S., Davies, O.A and Chia, A.M (2009)Distribution and Concentration of Trace Elements in Kubanni Reservoir in Northern Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth science, Vol.1(2). Pp:29-44
Adanu, E.A. (1987) Some hydrological characteristics of the shallow basement aquifer in the Zaria-Kaduna area. In:Matheis and Schandelmeir, Belkama, Rotterdam. (ed).,Current Research in African Earth Sciences, Pp.451-454.
Akintola, J.O. (1986) Rainfall Distribution in Nigeria (1982-1988). Impact Publishers, Ibadan. Allen, M.R. (2003) Liability for Climate Change. Nature, 421, pp: 691-892.
Ameh, P.I. (1996) Slope Analysis of Kubanni River Drainage Basin. Unpublished B.A. Dissertation, Department of Geography, A.B.U Zaria

 

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