Ads! Gain 200 Level Admission to Study Any Course In Any University Of Your Choice Through IJMB/JUPEB. NO JAMB | LOW FEES. Registration In Progress. Call 07063900993 NOW!

Diversity of Yeasts and Coliforms Associated with Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Periurban Dairy Farms in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

ADS! Download JAMB CBT Software Now for FREE!

Diversity of Yeasts and Coliforms Associated with Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Periurban Dairy Farms in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT  

This study aimed to examine the diversity of yeasts and coliforms associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in periurban dairy farms in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria, including the use of molecular techniques. A cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty-six dairy farms drawn from four local government areas in the state. A total of 300 composite milk samples were collected from 300 cows-in-milking and examined.

The result shows that: 37 (12.3%) fungal isolates were identified using the API 20C AUX as; (9) Candida albicans, (4) Candida famata, (4) Candida krusei, (1) Candida boidinii, (1) Candida pelliculosa,(1) Candida lusitaniae,(5) Trichosporon mucoides, (1)Cryptococcus humicola, (1) Cryptococcus laurentii, (1) Cryptococcus albidus, (2) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (2) Stephanoascus ciferrii, (2) Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, (1) Kloeckera spp., (1) Kodamaea ohmeri and (1) Geotrichum capitatum.

All C. Albicans had the ability to survive high temperature, produced germ tubes in human serum, and formed chlamydospores in corn meal-tween 80 Agar. Invitro sensitivity test using five antimycotic agents showed that 85% of the isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B, followed by griseofulvin, nystatin, voriconazole, and fluconazole in decreasing order. Nested PCR of the D1 / D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene of 11 yeast isolates showed they all had a distinct band- 600bp. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE – – – – – – – – – – i
DECLARATION – – – – – – – – – ii
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – – – iii
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – – iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – – – – – – – – v
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – – – vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS – – – – – – – – viii
LIST OF TABLES – – – – – – – – – xii
LIST OF FIGURES – – – – – – – – – xiii
LIST OF PLATES – – – – – – – – – xiv
LIST OF APPENDICES – – – – – – – – xv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS- – – – – – – – xvi

CHAPTER ONE:
1.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background Information – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Justification of the Research – – – – – – 4
1.4 Aim of the Study – – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 7

CHAPTER TWO:
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – – 8
2.1 Synonyms for Mastitis – – – – – – – 8
2.2 Some Important Uses of Cattle – – – – – 8
2.3 Importance of Milk – – – – – – – – 9
2.4 Mastitis – – – – – – – – – 9
2.5 Mycotic Mastitis – – – – – – – – 10
2.6 Diagnosis of Mycotic Mastitis – – – – – 14
2.7 Prevention and Treatment of Mycotic Mastitis – – – 16
2.8 Coliform Mastitis – – – – – – – – 17
2.9 Diagnosis of Coliform Mastitis – – – – – – 19
2.10 Prevention and Treatment of Coliform Mastitis – – – – 20

CHAPTER THREE:
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS – – – – – – 21
3.1 Study Area – – – – – – – – – 21
3.2 Sample Location – – – – – – – – 23
3.3 Sample Size Determination – – – – – – – 23
3.4 Selection Criteria – – – – – – – – 23
3.5 Physical Examination of Udder and Mastitis Screening Test – – 24
3.6 Sample collection – – – – – – – – 24
3.7 Laboratory isolation and identification of fungi – – – – 25
3.7.1 Purification of fungal colonies – – – – – – 25
3.8 Morphological Studies of Candida albicans – – – – 25
3.8.1 Chlamydospore production – – – – – – – 25
3.8.2 Germ tube test – – – – – – – 26
3.9 Biochemical Tests for Fungi- – – – – – – 26
3.10 Antifungal Sensitivity Testing – – – – – – 27
3.11 Molecular Identification of Fungal Isolates – – – – 27
3.11.1 DNA extraction using phenol chloroform method- – – – 27
3.11.2 Reconstitution of primers – – – – – – – 28
3.11.3 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – – – – – – 29
3.11.4 Loading samples and running an agarose gel – – – – 30
3.11.5 PCR product extraction from gel – – – – – – 31
3.11.6 Purification of DNA products – – – – – – 32
3.11.7 Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis – – – – – 32
3.12 Microbial Analysis – – – – – – – – 33
3.12.1 Serial dilution of milk samples – – – – – – 33
3.12.2 Inoculation of culture media- – – – – – – 34
3.12.3 Purification of coliform colonies – – – – – – 34
3.13 Biochemical Tests for Coliforms – – – – – – 34
3.14 Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing- – – – – – – 35
3.15 Administration of Questionnaires – – – – – – 35
3.15.1 Herd information – – – – – – – – 36
3.15.2 Individual cow information – – – – – – – 36
3.16 Data Analyses- – – – – – – – – 36

CHAPTER FOUR:
4.0 RESULTS – – – – – – – – – 38
4.1 Diversity of Fungal Isolates in Milk Samples and Antimycotic Sensitivity
Testing- – – – – – – – – – 38
4.2 Phylogenetic Identification of Yeast Isolates from Cow Milk in Kaduna
Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria – – – – – – 41
4.3 Diversity of Coliform Isolates in Milk Samples and Antibiotic Sensitivity
Testing – – – – – – – – – 46
4.4 Prevalence of Mastitis among Sampled Farms – – – – 49
4.5 Farm Practice and Diseases Common amongFarmers – – – 56

CHAPTER FIVE:
5.0 DISCUSSION – – – – – – – – 59

CHAPTER SIX:
6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS – – – – 68
6.1 Conclusions – – – – – – – – – 68
6.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 69

REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – 70
APPENDICES – – – – – – – – 81

INTRODUCTION  

Bovine mastitis is the inflammatory response of the udder to noxious agents that can be either infectious or non-infectious characterized by pathological alterations in mammary tissues, compositional changes in milk, elevated milk somatic cells, and pain to the affected animal resulting in reductions of milk yield and quality (Matofari et al., 2005; Radostits et al., 2007). Most frequently the etiology is infectious and organisms as diverse as bacteria, mycoplasmas, yeasts, and algae have been implicated (Smith and Hogan, 2001; Krukowski et al., 2006; Kivaria and Noordhuizen, 2007).

Bovine mycotic mastitis is usually caused by yeasts, but mastitis due to filamentous fungi mostly Aspergillus fumigatus has been reported (LasHeras et al., 2000). Mycotic mastitis occurs as sporadic cases affecting a small percentage of cows, or as outbreaks affecting the majority of animals. In both situations, however, the seriousness of infection depends on the number of organisms present in the glands and the species of yeast involved (Pengov, 2002).

Generally, studies have shown that mycotic mastitis is on the increase and the most frequently isolated organisms from affected quarters are Candida species (Malinowski et al., 2001; Spanamberg et al., 2008; Tarfarosh and Purohit, 2008) which are a group of unicellular opportunistic organisms, ever-present in the natural surroundings of dairy cattle (milker’s hands, milking machines, treatment instruments, floor, straw, feed, sawdust, soil, drug mixtures, and sanitizing solutions) and are normal inhabitants of the skin of the udder and teats, where they exist in low numbers (Santos and Marin, 2005). 

REFERENCES

Aalbaek, B., Stenderup, J., Jensen, H.E., Valbak, J., Nylin, B. and Huda, A. (1994). Mycotic
and algal bovine mastitis in Denmark. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica
Scandinavica, 102: 451-456.
Abd El-Razik, K.A., Ghazi, Y.A. and Salama, E.M. (2007). Monitoring of Brucella reactor
does following milk examination using different techniques. Pakistan Journal
ofBiological Science, 10: 240-244.
Abd El-Razik, K.A., Ismail, E.M., Youssef, H.M. and Hashad, M.A. (2008). Diagnosis of
brucellosis in dairy animals using nested PCR. International Journal of Dairy Science, 3:
55-62.
Abd El-Razik, K.A., Abdelrahman, K.A., Ahmed, Y.F., Gomaa, A.M. and Eldebaky,
H.A.(2010). Direct Identification of Major Pathogens of the Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis
in Egypt using PCR. Journal of American Science, 6: 652-660.
Abd El-Razik, K.A., Abdelrahman, K.A., Abd El-Moez, S.I. and Danial, E.N. (2011). New
approach in diagnosis and treatment of bovine mycotic mastitis in Egypt. African Journal
of Microbiology Research, 5(31): 5725-5732.
Abdurahman, O.A.S. (2006). Udder health and milk quality amongcamels in the Errer valley
of eastern Ethiopia, Livestock Research for Rural Development, 18: 1–9.
Abera, M., Abdi, O., Abunna, F. and Megersa, B. (2010). Udderhealth problems and major
bacterial causes of camel mastitis inJijiga, Eastern Ethiopia: implication for impacting
food security. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42: 341–347.
Akange, E.N., Kwanashie, C.N., Bisalla, M., Useh, N.M. and Ngbede, E.O. (2013). Evidence
of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Vet World 6(2): 64-67.
Ameh, J.A., Addo, P.B., Adekeye, E.O. and Gyang, E.O. (1993). Prevalence of clinical
mastitis and of intermammary infection in Nigerian goats. Journal of Preventive
Veterinary Medicine, 17: 41-46.

CSN Team.

Enter your email address:

Delivered by TMLT NIGERIA

Join Over 3,500 000+ Readers Online Now!


=> FOLLOW US ON INSTAGRAM | FACEBOOK & TWITTER FOR LATEST UPDATES

ADS: KNOCK-OFF DIABETES IN JUST 60 DAYS! - ORDER YOURS HERE

COPYRIGHT WARNING! Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.

Tags: , , , ,

Comments are closed.

%d bloggers like this: