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Domestic Politics and Nigerian Foreign Policy

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Domestic Politics and Nigerian Foreign Policy.

ABSTRACT  

Foreign and domestic policy issues are related products of the same political system and are designed to define and implement overall national purposes. Foreign and domestic policy must be mutually supporting if national policy aspirations are to be achieved in an atmosphere of political stability. The research was carried out on the impacts of domestic politics in Nigeria’s foreign policy using a case study method with a focus on President Olusegun Obasanjo’s civilian administration (1999 – 2003).

The review of literature on foreign policy and other related material and the adoption of “Realist Theory” which is anchored on interest led us to the conclusion that Nigeria’s seeming inaction during the period of study was an acknowledgement of the limits of its power. Against this background, the study concludes that Nigeria’s foreign policy has since independence been consistently guided by the same principles and objectives.

Nigeria’s Foreign Policy initiatives and actions have been defined by one firm and constant variable, i.e. the protection of the country’s national interest. As a panacea, the study recommended, above all, that Nigeria must involve a “homegrown” economic policy and honestly abode by its implementation. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page . . . . . . . . i
Certification. . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . iii
Declaration . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . v
List of Abbreviations . . . . . . vii
Table of Contents . . . . . . . xi
Abstract . . . . . . . xv

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Historical Background of Nigerian Foreign Policy . 1
1.2 Statement of research problem . . . . 11
1.3 Aims and Objectives of research . . . 11
1.4 Assumption . . . . . . . 12
1.5 Theoretical framework . . . . . . 12
1.6 Research Methodology . . . . . 13
1.7 Method of Data Analysis . . . . . 14
1.8 Scope and Limitation . . . . . 14
1.9 Chapter Outline . . . . . . 14
Endnotes . . . . . . . 16

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review . . . . . . 17
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Foreign Policy . . . . . . 17
2.3 Foreign Policy and Domestic Policy . . . 24
Endnotes . . . . . . . 35

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 The Impact of domestic Politics on Nigeria’s
Foreign Policy under the military regimes
administration (1976 – 1979) . . . . 39
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Impact of domestic politics on Nigeria’s Foreign
Policy under Yakubu Gowon (1967 – 1975) . . 40
3.3 Impact of domestic politics on Nigeria’s
Foreign Policy under Murtala / Obasanjo
regime (1975 – 1979) . . . . . 44
3.4 The impact of domestic politics under
Buhari’s regime . . . . . . 47
3.5 The impact of domestic politics on
Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Babangida’s
Regime . . . . . . . 48
3.6 The impact of domestic politics on
Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Abacha Regime . 51
Endnotes . . .. . . . . 58

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 The impact of domestic politics on
Nigeria’s Foreign Policy (1999 – 2003). . . 60
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 60
4.2 Consolidation of democracy in Nigeria . . . 61
4.3 Foreign Investment . . . . . 65
4.4 Debt Cancellation / Relief . . . . 67
4.5 Economic Development . . . . . 69
4.6 Conflict prevention, management and
resolution and Nigeria’s Foreign
Policy (1999 – 2003) . . . . . 72
4.7 Globalization and Nigerian Foreign Policy . . 76
Endnotes . . . . . . . 78

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations . 82
5.1 Summary . . . . . . . 82
5.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . 85
5.3 Recommendations . . . . . . 87
Bibliography . . . . . . 88

INTRODUCTION  

A study in Nigeria’s foreign policy over time has quite often underscored the potency of its domestic contents. Notable scholars on Nigerian external relations such as Akinyemi, Aluko, Gambari, Birai etc demonstrated the influence of domestic conditions on the country’s attitude and behaviour toward other actors in the international system. The influence of domestic politics on Nigeria’s foreign policy was made obvious to the international community on 1st October 1960, by the then first Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa himself in a moving address to the United Nations General Assembly in New York.

He observed that: Nigeria does not intend to ally itself as a member of routine with any of the ideological power blocs and Nigeria hopes to work with other states for the Progress of Africa and to assist in bringing all other African territories to a state of responsible independence. Given the domestic nature and the country’s size and at the same time natural resources, it was assumed that Nigeria would play a leading role in the continent of Africa. Some scholars even spoke of the country’s “manifest destiny” to lead Africa surrounded by small and weak states.

Abubakar, O.S reviewing Gambari said that; the first phase, one of uncertainty and timidity of Nigerian Foreign Policy coincided with the period of the First Republic (1960 – 65). The major issue at that time was the official foreign policy declaration itself; the Anglo Nigerian Defence pact, the Congo Crisis and African Unity; Negotiations for associate status with the European Economic Community (EEC): the Rhodesian Crisis and Common Wealth relations; and the Arab – Israeli antagonism and the search for a cohesive policy towards the middle east.

Nigeria throughout this period operated a Pro-West foreign policy disposition. The conservative nature in her external relations was dictated by Nigerian Federalism which professes three strong regions with a weak centre. Prime Minister Balewa then had a constitutional authority that was not always matched by the political power needed to override these divergent groups encroachment upon Nigeria’s foreign policy. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abubakar, O S: Domestic Conditions and foreign policy: Nigeria after the
3rd Republic (memmanet) Plaza Abuja 2004
Ajibola, W. A.: Public Opinion and foreign policy (Ibadan) 1978
Aluko Olajide: Essays in Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. University Press Ibadan.
Alkali, R. A: Issues in International Relations and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy
(North Point Publishers) Baraka Press, Kaduna.
Anderson R.: Introduction to International Politics (MC Graw – Hill)
Claude, A: The Relationship between domestic politics and foreign policy
with reference to Nigeria in Tyoden, S. G (eds): Nigerian’s foreign policy.
Summary of the proceeding of a seminar. A national Institute Publication.1992.
Deutsch Karl: The analysis of International Relations (Prince – Hall) New
Delhi, 1968.
Fawole W. A.: General Sani Abacha and the New Nigerian Foreign Policy
(OAU Press) Ibadan. 1999.
Gambari, I. A: Theory and Reality in foreign policy making: Nigeria after
the second republic (Atlantia Highland, Humanities Press International).
Garba J.: An honour to serve (Ibadan) spectrum)
Graham, T. A: Essence of Decision (Boston: Little, Brown 1971).
Hammon E(eds): Quantitative Technique Geography (Oxford University
Press) London 1978.
Idang, G. J: Nigerian Internal Politics and Foreign Policy (1960-66) Ibadan.

CSN Team.

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