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Domestication of the Child’s Rights Act, 2003 In Kaduna State: Challenges and Prospects

Filed in Current Projects, Law Project Topics by on July 21, 2021

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Domestication of the Child’s Rights Act, 2003 In Kaduna State: Challenges and Prospects.

ABSTRACT  

The Child’s Rights Act 2003 (CRA) is a product of International and Regional legal frameworks on the rights of the child as treaties. It was enacted into law as required by the Constitution Federal Republic of Nigeria to have the force of law in the country subject to ratification by states of the Federation and adoption by individual states for the promotion and protection of the rights of the child. Kaduna State among few other states has not yet adopted or domesticated the CRA.

There are currently some child’s rights related laws operational in Kaduna State which are either holistic or partial such as the Constitution, Children and Young Person’s Law of Kaduna State, Kaduna State Infant Edict, Kaduna State Legitimacy Law, the Penal Code, Sharia Penal Code, Labour Act and Matrimonial Cause Act. The operational Laws are characterized by some deficiencies hence, the need for CRA in Kaduna State. The research is associated with problems such as Constitutional, Religious, Socio-Cultural, Economic, Administrative, awareness and non-implementation and enforcement.

The domestication of CRA is faced with some challenges flowing from the above-stated problems such as non-compliance with the requirement of the constitution and inconsistencies of some provisions of the CRA with the Constitution, controversial provisions of the CRA in relation to religions, poor economic standard of the people of Kaduna, the poor administrative synergy between concerned stakeholders, lack of awareness and non-implementation and enforcement of CRA in other states of the federation. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. i
Declaration …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. ii
Certification …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. iii
Dedication …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. iv
Acknowledgement …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. v
Table of Cases…. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. vi
Table of Statutes …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. vii
Abstract …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. viii
Abbreviation …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. ….. ix
Table of Contents …. ….. ….. ….. …. …. ….. ….. x

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study …. …. …. …. …. …. 1-2
1.2 Statement of the Problem …. …. …. …. …. …. 3-5
1.3 Aim and Objectives …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 6
1.4 Justification …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 7
1.5 Scope of the Research …. …. …. …. …. …. 7
1.6 Research Methodology …. …. …. …. …. …. 7-8
1.7 Literature Review …. …. …. …. …. …. 8-12
1.8 Organizational Layout …. …. …. …. …. …. 12-13

CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
2.1 The Meaning of Child…. …. …. …. …. …. …. 14-15
2.2 Best Interest of the child …. …. …. …. …. …. 15-16
2.3 The Concept of Right …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 16
2.4 The Concept of child abuse …. …. …. …. …. …. 16-19
2.5 Juvenile Justice …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 19
2.6 Legitimacy …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 19
2.7 The Concept of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Test…. …. …. …. 20
2.8 The Concept of Almajiri System of Education …. …. …. 20-23
2.9 The Concept of Culture …. …. …. …. …. …. 23-24

CHAPTER THREE
AN APPRAISAL OF THE CHILD’S RIGHTS ACT, 2003
3.1 The Rationale of the CRA …. …. …. …. …. …. 27-28
3.2 Structure of the CRA …. …. …. …. …. …. 28-29
3.3 Contents of the CRA …. …. …. …. …. …. 29
3.3.1 The Best Interest of the Child…. …. …. …. …. …. 29-31
3.3.2 Rights of the Child …. ….. ….. ….. ….. …. …. 31-41
3.3.3 Responsibilities of the Child …. …. …. …. …. …. 41
3.3.4 Responsibilities of the Parent …. …. …. …. …. 42-43
3.3.5 Protection of the Rights of the Child …. …. …. …. …. 43-45
3.3.6 Children in Need of care and protection …. …. …. …. 45-48
3.3.7 Care and Supervision of Children …. …. …. …. …. 48-49
3.3.8 Provisions for use of Scientific tests in determining paternity or
Maternity of a Child …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 49-51
3.3.9 Possession and Custody, Guardianship and Fostering of
Children and adoption …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 51-57
3.3.10 Establishment of family Court …. …. …. …. …. 58-61
3.3.11 Administration of Justice, supervision officer approvable of
Institutional etc …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 61-64

CHAPTER FOUR
EXAMINATION OF CHILD’S RIGHT’S RELATED LAWS IN KADUNA
STATE
4.1 The Constitution Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) …. 65-67
4.2 Kaduna State Children and Young Person’s Law ….. ….. ….. 67-70
4.3 Kaduna State Infant Edict …. …. …. …. …. …. 71-73
4.4 Other Relevant Laws …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 73
4.4.1 Kaduna State Legitimacy Law …. …. …. …. …. 73-74
4.4.2 The Penal Code…. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 74-75
4.4.3 The Sharia Penal Code and Rights of the Child under Islamic Law …. 75-82
4.4.4 The Labour Act …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 82-83
4.4.5 The Matrimonial Cause Act …. …. …. …. …. …. 83-84

CHAPTER FIVE
CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DOMESTICATION OF CHILD’S
RIGHTS ACT, 2003 IN KADUNA STATE
5.1 Constitutional Challenge …. …. …. …. …. …. 87-91
5.1.1 Prospects for Constitutional Challenge …. …. …. …. 91
5.2 Religious Challenge …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 91
5.2.1 Right to Freedom from Discrimination …. …. …. …. 91-93
5.2.2 Prohibition of Child Marriage and Betrothal …. …. …. …. 93-98
5.2.3 Use of Scientific Test for Proof of Paternity …. …. …. …. 98-100
5.2.4 Lawfulness of Adoption …. …. …. …. …. ….101-102
5.2.5 Prohibition of Corporal Punishment …. …. …. …. ….102-107
5.2.6 Prospects for religion challenge … … … … ….108
5.3 Socio-Cultural Challenge …. …. …. …. …. ….108-111
5.3.1 Prospects for Socio-Cultural Challenge …. …. …. ….112
5.4 Economic Challenge …. …. …. …. …. …. ….112-115
5.4.1 Prospects for Economic Challenge …. …. …. …. ….115
5.5 Administrative Challenge …. …. …. …. …. ….116
5.5.1 Prospects for Administrative challenge … … … …116
5.6 Awareness and Acceptability Challenge …. …. …. ….117-118
5.6.1 Prospects for awareness and acceptability Challenge… … …118
5.7 Challenge of Non-Implementation and Enforcement of CRA in other States … 118-120
5.7.1 Prospects for the challenge of non-implementation and enforcement of CRA in
The other States …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. 121-122
5.8 Data Analysis …. …. …. …. …. …. …. ….122
5.8.1 The Research Methods and Data Collection …. …. …. ….122-139

CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Summary …. …. …. …. …. …. …. ….140-141
6.2 Findings …. …. …. …. …. …. …. ….142
6.3 Observations …. …. …. …. …. …. …. ….142-146
6.4 Recommendations …. …. …. …. …. …. ….146-147

BIBLIOGRAPHY …. …. …. …. …. …. ….148-151

INTRODUCTION  

The promotion and protection of respect for and observation of general human rights and fundamental freedom globally have been the perpetual concern of many societies and international organizations for centuries. The concern for human rights gave rise to concern for the rights of specific individuals in terms of sex, age, minority, incapacity etc. Children among the aforementioned individuals are given special attention and priority due to their physical and mental immaturity.

The weakness of the child calls for the need to safeguard the child parentally, governmentally and legally from harm right from conception to after birth. For the child to be protected legally there was a need for legal instruments on the ground. This lead to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child of 1989 as Convention on the Rights of the Child hereinafter referred to as UN Convention at International Level and the Declaration of the Rights and Welfare of the Child of 1990 as Organisation of African Union (OAU) now African Union (AU) Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child hereinafter referred to as AU Charter at the regional level.

The above legal instruments gave rise to the Child’s Rights Act, 2003 hereinafter referred to as CRA at domestic level in compliance with the provisions of the Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria 1 1999 (as amended) hereinafter referred to as CFRN. The Legislation on Child’s Rights, being in the concurrent list, is to be adopted or domesticated by states of the federation for it to get the legal effect. While some states have adopted the CRA, others have not, among which Kaduna State is one. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aboki Y. Introduction to Legal Research Methodology 2nd Ed, Tamaza Publishing
Company Limited Zaria (2009).
Arksey, H. and Knight, P. Introducing for Social Scientists Sage Publication, London
(1999).
Bambale Y. Y. Crimes and Punishment Under Islamic Law, Malthouse Press
Limited (2003).
Dobson J. the New Dare to Discipline, Wheaton III Tindale, (1992)
Donelly J. Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, Ithala and London
Cornel University Press.
Esterberg, K. Qualitative Methods in Social Science Research, McGraw-Hill, USA,
(2002)
Hammudah Abd Al Ati The Family Structure in Islam. International Graphics
Printing Services 4411 41st Street, Brentwood. Maryland 20722. (1977).
Haralambos, M. Heald, R. M. Sociology Themes and Perspectives. University
Tutorial Press Limited, Slough, Great Britain, (1988).
Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition
Nwogugu E. I, Family Law in Nigeria Third Edition.HEBN Publishers Plc Ibadan,
Nigeria (2014).

CSN Team.

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