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Effect of Concept Mapping on Peace and Conflict Concepts Attainment and Transfer in Junior Secondary Social Studies in Abia State

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Effect of Concept Mapping on Peace and Conflict Concepts Attainment and Transfer in Junior Secondary Social Studies in Abia State.

ABSTRACT  

This study investigated the effect of Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy (CMIS) on peace and conflict concepts attainment and transfer in junior secondary Social Studies in Umuahia Education Zone, Abia State. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent quasi experimental research design. One hundred and seventy-five (175) JSS3 students were purposively sampled for the study.

The sample distribution of the study includes 92 urban students comprised of 49 males and 43 females and 83 rural students comprised of 44 males and 39 females. Eighty-seven (87) students were assigned to experimental group taught using CMIS while 88 students were assigned to control group taught using lecture method. Eleven research questions and eleven null hypotheses guided the study.

Twenty (20) multiple choice items SSAT instrument (which tested the attainment variable) focused on conflict and conflict management and resolution concepts and four (4) essay items SSTT instrument (which tested transferability variable) focused on peace concepts were developed by the researcher and used for data collection. The test blue print, conventional lesson plans, atypical lesson plans, concept maps, SSAT and SSTT developed by the researcher were validated by three experts- one in Measurement and Evaluation and two in Social Studies.

The instruments were pilot tested on 35 JSS3 Social Studies of Anglican Grammar School, Nbawsi in Isialangwa L.G.A. The data obtained from the trial testing exercise were used to determine the difficulty index, discrimination index, distractor index, and the reliability coefficient of the study. The items which possessed difficulty index of 0.4 and above, positive discrimination index of 0.10 and above and have effective distracters were used for the study. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – – vii
List of Appendices – – – – – – – – – – x
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – – xii
List of Figures- – – – – – – – – – – xiv
List of Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – – xv
Abstract – – – – – – — – – – – xvi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study – – – – – – – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – – 17
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – – – 19
Significance of the Study – – – – – – – – – 21
Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – – – 23
Research Questions – – – – – – – – – – 24
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – – 25

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A. Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – – – 27
Concept of Social Studies – – – – – – – – – 27
Concept of Teaching and Qualities of Effective Teaching – – – – – 33
Concept Mapping and Concept Maps- – – – – – – 38
Concept of Attainment – – – – – – – – – 54
Concept of Transfer of Learning – – – – – – – – 54
Concept of Gender – – – – – – – – – – 59
Concept of Location – – – – – – – – – – 60
Concept of Peace and Conflict – – – – – – – – – 64
B. Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – – – 72
Constructivist theory of learning by Vygotsky, 1978 – – – – – 72
Schema theory by Sir Frederic Bartlett, 1932 – – – – – – 73
Meaningful Learning Theory by Ausubel, 1962 – – – – – – 75
C. Empirical Studies – – – – – – – – – 76
Empirical Studies on Instructional Strategy and Attainment – – – – – 76
Empirical Studies on Instructional Strategy and Transfer of Learning – – – 81
Empirical Studies on Correlation between Attainment and Transfer of Learning – – 87
Empirical Studies on Gender and Attainment – – – – – – 92
Empirical Studies on Location and Attainment – – – – – – 94
Empirical Studies on Gender and Transfer of Learning – – – – – 98
Empirical Studies on Location and Transfer of Learning – – – – – 98
D. Summary of Reviewed Literature – – – – – – – 100

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design – – – – – – – – – -102
Area of the Study – – – – – – – – – -103
Population of the Study – – – – – – – – -104
Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – – – -104
Instruments for Data Collection – – – – – – – -105
Validation of the Instruments – – – – – – – – -107
Trial Testing of Instrument – – – – – – – – -109
Scoring of Instrument – – – – – – – – -100
Item Analysis of the Instrument – – – – – – – -111
Reliability of the Instruments – – – – – – – – – 113
Experimental Procedure – – – – – – – – – 114
Control of Extraneous Variables – – – – – – – – 115
Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – 116
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – — – 116

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS — 118

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of the Findings – – – – – – – – – 140
Summary of Study – – – – – – – – – – 147
Educational Implications – – – – – – – – – 152
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – 152
Recommendations – – – – – – — – – – 153
Limitations of the Study – – – – – – – – – 154
Suggestions for Further Research – – – – – – – – 154

REFERENCE – – – – – – – – – – 155
APPENDICES – – – – — – – – – – 166

INTRODUCTION  

Secondary school education generally aims at preparing and equipping individuals for effective contribution towards societal development. This position is reflected in Nigerian goals of education which are: development of the individual into a sound, patriotic and effective citizen; total integration of the individual into the immediate community, the Nigerian society and the world; inculcation of national consciousness, values and national unity; and development of appropriate skills, mental, physical and social abilities and competencies to empower the individual to live in and contribute positively to the society (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013).

However, for the goals of education in any society to be achieved reforms and innovations in education have to be embraced with greater focus on enhancing the quality and effectiveness of teachers in the application of instructional methods and skills in their teaching. Taire, Osisioma, Nwankpa and Onyia, (2010) identified that “societal changes as dictated by socio-economic demands have engendered the current global educational reform and the attendant pressure on schools to change the way things are done”.

Thus, there is a global interest in raising educational achievement level to benefit future economic development through increasing the skills base and producing an educated workforce to fit the requirements of the knowledge economy (Jeffrey, 2006). The above identified interest can only be met or realized through the application of learner centred instructional strategies such as Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy (CMIS) (which is a teaching technique used for externalizing concepts and propositions by using diagrams to present the relationships between concepts) in the teaching-learning process. 

REFERENCES

Adedayo, A.O. (2001). The Place of Mathematics in Nigeria Secondary School Course on
Effective Teaching of Mathematics Phase 2. Lagos: Magado Press.

Adesina, A.D.O. (2008). Correlates of Gender, Socio-Economic Background and Performance
Among Junior Secondary School Students Using Advance Organizer Learning Strategy. An
Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife Nigeria.

Adesina, A.D.O & Adeyemi, B.A. (2013). Teaching to Achieve Social Studies Values: A Case of
Re-Education of Teachers. Retrieved On 2nd June 2013 from http://Www.Det
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Agu, S.U., Amujiri, B.A., & Okwo, I.M. (2012). Causes and Impacts of Ethno-Religious
Crisis and National Development: A Case Study of Plateau State. International Journal of
Research in Arts and Social Sciences (IJRASS). 4, 240-250.

Akinlaye, F.A. (2003). Fundamental Of Social Studies Curriculum Planning and Instruction.
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Akubue, F.N. (2008: December). Innovative Strategies for Teaching Social Studies. Social
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CSN Team.

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