Effect of Employees Training On Organizational Performance : Current School News

Effect of Employees Training On Organizational Performance in Soft Drinks Bottling Companies

Effect of Employees Training On Organizational Performance in Soft Drinks Bottling Companies


The analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), while the person product-moment correlation coefficient and the one-sample test were used to test the hypotheses formulated in the study.

Findings from the study reveal that the extent to which the unsystematic approach of employee training affected organizational productivity was high. This was statistically supported by the one-sample test at 0.05 (Zc = 8.246 < Zt = 0.000).  Again, the extent of the effect of training design on employee productivity was high. The one-sample test (Zc = 0.679 < Zt = 0.730; a= 0.05) confirms this assertion. The extent to which training delivery style affected employee productivity was high as attested to by the result of the one-sample test (Zc = 0.681 < Zt = 0.762; a= 0.05).

Similarly, there was a very strong positive relationship between employee perception of training and organizational performance. This is confirmed with the Pearson Correlation coefficient value of 0.948 at 0.05level of significance.

The extent to which employee training alone affected organizational performance was low, however, when other variables like training design, training delivery style were considered, its effect became significant. This is confirmed by the one-sample test at 0.05 (Zc = 0.705 > Zt = 0.665).


Declaration                                                                                                                           ii

Approval                                                                                                                             iii

Dedication                                                                                                                           iv

Acknowledgments v

Abstract                                                                                                                              vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                             viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                    xii

List of Figures                                                                                                                  xiv

Chapter One                                                                                                                         1

Introduction                                                                                                                          1

1.2          Statement of the Problem                                                                                      3

1.3          Objectives of Study                                                                                         4

1.4          Research Questions                                                                                               5

1.5          Hypotheses                                                                                                            5

1.6          Significance of Study                                                                                      6

1.7          Scope of Study                                                                                                 6

1.8          Limitations of Study                                                                                        7

1.9          Operational Definition of Terms                                                                           7

References                                                                                                                            8

Chapter Two                                                                                                                         9

Review of Related Literature                                                                                           9

2.1          Overview of the Effect of Employee Training on Organizational Performance   9

2.2          Conceptual Framework                                                                                       10

2.2.1 Purpose of Training                                                                                           11

2.2.2      Types of Training                                                                                         13

2.3          The Concept of Psychological Contract                                                             14

2.4          Theoretical Framework of Employee Training                                                  15

2.5          Theoretical Models Linking Training to Organizational Performance             16

2.6          Successful Models of Training and Development                                              18

2.6.1      ADDIE Instructional Design Model                                                            18

2.6.2      Human Performance Technology (HPT)                                                     21

2.6.3      Performance-Based Instructional Design (PBID)                                        22

2.6.4      Total Quality Management (TQM)                                                             23

2.7          Learning Theories                                                                                               23

2.8          Identification of Training Needs in an Organisation                                          24

2.8.1      Training Needs Assessment                                                                         25

2.8.2      Benefits of Training Needs Assessment                                                      26

2.9          Training Design and Organizational Performance                                             26

2.10        Implication of Training Delivery Style on Employees Performance                 28

2.10.1    Methods of Training                                                                                    28

2.11        Difference between Training and Development                                                 32

2.12        Human Resource Management (HRM) Process vis-à-vis Employee Training   34

2.13        Non-Systematic Approach of Training                                                               35

2.14        Systematic Training Process                                                                               36

2.15        Empirical Framework of Training on Organizational Performance                  38

2.16        Effects of Employee Training on Employee Motivation vis-à-vis Organizational Performance                                                                                                                   41

2.17        Measuring the Impact of Training on Organizational Performance                   42

2.17.1    Organizational Performance Measurement                                                 43

2.17.2    Employee Performance Indicators                                                               44

2.18        Productivity                                                                                                         47

2.18.1    Measures of Productivity and Profitability                                                 48

References                                                                                                                          51

Chapter Three                                                                                                                     57

Research Methodology                                                                                                      57

3.1          Research Design                                                                                                  57

3.2          Sources of Data                                                                                                   57

3.2.1      Primary Source                                                                                             57

3.2.2      Secondary Source                                                                                         57

3.3          Population of Study                                                                                       57

3.4          Determination of Sample Size                                                                            58

3.5          Sampling Method                                                                                                59

3.6          Validation of the Research Instrument                                                               60

3.7          Reliability of the Research Instrument                                                               60

3.8          Data Analysis Techniques                                                                                   60

3.8.1      Decision Rule                                                                                               61

References                                                                                                                          62

Chapter Four                                                                                                                      63

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data                                                            63

4.1          Presentation of Data                                                                                                63

4.2          Hypotheses Testing                                                                                             88

4.3          Discussion of Findings                                                                                        95

References                                                                                                                          98

Chapter Five                                                                                                                       99

Summary of Findings, Recommendation, and Conclusions                                               99

5.1          Summary of Findings                                                                                          99

5.2          Conclusion                                                                                                           99

5.3          Recommendations                                                                                             100

5.4          Contribution to Knowledge                                                                               101

Bibliography                                                                                                                    103

Appendices                                                                                                                       111

Appendix A: Questionnaire                                                                                             111

Appendix B: Interview Schedule                                                                                     115

Appendix C: Calculation of the Reliability of the Research Instrument                       117


The history of training in business organizations is as long as the entire history of business organizations (Miller, 1996:3). This is because the knowledge base or skills of the normal employees in the labor market is not sufficient for the specialized tasks within the organizations.

However, the academic study of various forms of training did not start until about a century ago, when researchers started a branch of research under the name of “vocational training” (Salas and Cannon Bowers, 2001).

The beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II saw the widespread of training programs among organizations, involving more and more employees and also expanding in content (Luo, 2000).

In the 1910s, only a few large companies such as Westinghouse, General Electric, and International Harvester had factory schools that focused on training technical skills for entry-level workers. By the end of 1990, forty percent of the Fortune 500 firms in America had a corporate university or learning center (Meister, 1997).

Training in Nigeria could be traced back to 1960 when it was discovered that most of the top government and business positions were occupied by expatriates (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013). The departure of the whites after independence gave rise to a big vacuum of capable indigenous human capital.


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