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Effectiveness of Drainage Networks on Floods in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

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Effectiveness of Drainage Networks on Floods in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The study examined the effects of drainage networks on floods in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

The rapid increase in urbanization without corresponding infrastructures in the city of Calabar has led to increased incidences of flood as the available drainage channels cannot contend with the volume of stormwater.

In view of this, the study established gauging stations for the measurement of drainage runoff using measuring steel tape.

And the volume of floodwater was measured using the stopwatch method (velocity of flow) and copies of the questionnaire were administered to 400 households proportionally to the seven sample units.

In view of the study objectives, it determines the relationship between drainage width and depth and floods. In addition, varied descriptive statistics tools were used to give a spot-on assessment and understanding of the variables of interest.

In view of the response of the gauging and physical measurement, it was established that Calabar experience heavy rainfall due to poor drainage facilities the result revealed that about 47% of the respondents said floods occur every year in their zone and 41.75% said it occurred most parts of the year.

The frequency of flood is compounded with its intensity as over 59% of the sampled population agreed that the flood of the sampled population agreed that flood intensity is very high in Calabar.

The result further showed that the factors of flood occurrence in the study area are linked to heavy rainfall (26.3%), inadequate drainage channel (22%) poor physical planning (15.5%) among others.

On the perceived causes of the inadequate drainage channels, the result indicated that abuse of land use plans (28.7%) was a major factor followed by poor monitoring and evaluation of projects (21.5%).

The study also revealed that the drainage was very narrow and shallows as shown infrequent floods in the city.

The incessant flood often leads to water inundating compounds (64.5%), preventing people from going out (11.25%), distortion of the scenic beauty of the environment (6.25%), landslide (4.75%).

Based on these findings, the study recommended that since Calabar is located in a tropical zone characterized by heavy rainfall the government should take proactive measures to mitigate stormwater.

The present drainage systems should be cleared with a shovel by the people on a regular basis to allow for a free flow of stormwater.

State department of town planning should live up to their bidding by ensuring total compliance to an urban ordinance to forestall incessant floods and destruction of properties in the city of Calabar.

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Cities the world over are the dominating forces in the organization of the human population. As the world’s most crowded places, cities continue to show an increase in urban population. This increase leads to a growing urbanization trend. Duru and Nnaji (2008) defined urbanization as the increase in the population of cities in proportion to the region‟s rural population.

Urbanization is the outcome of social, economic, and political developments that lead to the concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use, and transformation from rural to metropolitan patterns of organization and governance. The rapid growth of towns and cities has been a common feature of the developing world (Aderamo, 2008).

Although urbanization is the driving force for modernization, economic growth, and development, there is increasing concern about the effects of expanding cities, principally on human health, livelihoods, and the environment.

The implications of rapid urbanization and demographic trends for employment, food security, water supply, shelter, and sanitation, especially the disposal of wastes (solid and liquid) that the cities produce are staggering (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992).

The process of urbanization is believed to be connected with levels of development and some assert that, for a country to develop there is the need for an increased level of industrialization as it is generally accepted that there cannot be urbanization without rapid economic growth (Tettey, 2005).

The pattern of urbanization in developing countries, particularly Africa, however, is creating some concern that it may be generating a lot of development problems in the process of its growth.

REFERENCES

Abaje, I.B, and Giwa, P.N (2008). Urban Flooding in Environmental Safety: Urbanization, Resources Exploitation, and Environmental Stability, Association of Nigerian Geographer book of proceedings of the 4th annual conference held in the Department of Geography, University of Abuja, 15th-19th October 2007. Kaduna, Joyce publishers.
Abam, T.S. K. (2006). Development Policy Framework for Erosion and Flood Control in Nigeria. EARTHWATCH – Magazine for Environment and Development Experts in Nigeria, 5(1), 25-32.
Abdulhamid, A. I. And Ibrahim, J. M. (2012). A Study of Common Episodic Disaster Events in Zaria Urban Area, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(2) 90-94.
Abu-Ghazalah, S. (2008). The Sustainable City Development Plan for Aqaba, Jordan. Journal of Developing Societies, 24, 381-398.
Action Aid (2006).Climate Change, Urban Flooding and the Rights of the Urban Poor in Africa. Report by Action Aid International Urbanization 19, 17- 37.
Adedeji, S., Adeola B., Adeyemi C., and Kuyoro, P. (2011). Panorama: The Day the Heaven Opened up in Lagos The Tell: Nigerian Independent Weekly. Lagos: Tell Communications Limited. 30, 11-13.

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