Effects of Film-Modeling and Direct-Teaching Techniques on Self-Concept : Current School News

Effects of Film-Modeling and Direct-Teaching Techniques on Self-Concept of Schooling Adolescents

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Effects of Film-Modeling and Direct-Teaching Techniques on Self-Concept of Schooling Adolescents.

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of the film. Modelling and direct-teaching techniques on self-concepts of schooling adolescents. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. The sample for the study comprised one hundred and fifteen (115) secondary school students drawn from three (3) out of four (4) co-education public secondary schools in Nsukka urban. All the SSI students in the four co-education schools made up the population.

The intact class of SSIA students in each of three schools were purposively selected as a sample for the study comprising twenty (20) male students and twenty (20) female students from school (1) for the direct-teaching experimental group, twenty (20) male students and fifteen,

(15) female students from school (2) for film modelling experimental group, while twenty (20) male students and twenty (20) female students from school (3) for the control group. Direct-teaching experimental group was taught how to enhance self-concept. Film-modelling experimental group was shown filmed drama on how to enhance self-concept, while the control group did not receive any treatment other than the normal counselling services with their school guidance counsellor.

Eight research questions and twelve null hypotheses guided the study. The instrument used for data collection from the respondents in each group was the modified Tennessee self-concept scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at an alpha level of 0.05.

In conclusion, a summary of results reveals that the students exposed to direct teaching techniques and film modelling techniques each performed better than the control group on the acquisition of physical, moral and social self-concept. Further, the result of the study reveals that gender has no significant mean effect on the overall self-concept.

Also, it was revealed from the results that the film modelling technique proved more effective than direct teaching for the improvement of moral self-concepts of schooling adolescents. Based on these findings the researcher made vital recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – x
List of Figures – – – – – – – – xii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem- – – – – – – 9
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 10
Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 11
Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – 12
Research Questions – – – – – – – 13
Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – 13

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Meaning and Development of Self-Concept among Adolescents – 15
Causes of Low Self-Concept – – – – – – 24
Self-Concept and Social interaction – – – – – 27
Theoretical Background of Film-Modelling and Direct Teaching Techniques- – – – – 29
Theoretical Background of Direct-Teaching – – – – 33
Empirical Studies- – – – – – – – – 35
Related Studies on Self-Concept – – – – – 35
Summary of Literature Review – – – – – – 40

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design – – – – – – – – – 42
Population – – – – – – – – – 44
Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – 44
Control of Extraneous Variable – – – – – – 45
The Modified Instrument for Data Collection – – – 45
Validity – – – – – – – – – – 47
Reliability – – – – – – – – – 47
Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – 49
Test-Retest Reliability – – – – – – – 49
Test Administration – – – – – – – 51
Test Scoring – – – – – – – – – 52
Treatment – – – – – – – – – 53
Treatment plan – – – – – – – – 53
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 54

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

Research Question One – – – – – – – 55
Research Question Two – – – – – – – 56
Research Question Three – – – – – – – 56
Research Question Four – – – – – – – 57
Research Question Five – – – – – – – 57
Research Question Six – – – – – – – 58
Research Question Seven – – – – – – – 59
Research Question Eight – – – – – – – 60
Hypothesis One – – – – – – – – 61
Hypothesis Two – – – – – – – – 63
Hypothesis Three – – – – – – – – 63
Hypothesis Four – – – – – – – – 64
Hypothesis Five – – – – – – – – 66
Hypothesis Six – – – – – – – – 67
Hypothesis Seven – – – – – – – – 68
Hypothesis Eight – – – – – – – – 70
Hypothesis Nine – – – – – – – – 70
Hypothesis Ten – – – – – – – – 71
Hypothesis Eleven – – – – – – – – 73
Hypothesis Twelve – – – – – – – – 73
Summary of Results – – – – – – – 77

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

Statement of Major Findings – – – – – – 80
Discussion and Interpretation of Findings – – – – 81
Implications of Findings – – – – – – – 91
Recommendations – – – – – – – – 92
Limitations of the Study – – – – – – – 93
Suggestion for Further Studies – – – – – – 94
Summary – – – – – – – – – 95
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 97
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 98
APPENDIXES:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Human society is constantly being changed by the physical environment just as the latter is changed by human activities.

Thus, the observation by Ekpo (1996) that the difficulties being experienced by the adolescents in educational, socio-personal and vocational adjustments could be attributed in part to environmental changes due to the increasing complexity of the contemporary world in both developed and developing countries.

These difficulties create psycho-social problems among the schooling adolescents that have a potential impact on their low self-concept formation. In Nigeria, specifically during the civil strife of between 1967 and 1970 the resultant imbalance in the social, economic and political systems reached alarming stages.

The psycho-social decay distorted and disoriented the moral development of the citizens, particularly those of the children and adolescents. As a result, such social vices as vandalization of public properties, stealing, armed robbery, cultism, forgery, examination malpractice, sex abuse among others became enthroned among the youthful adolescents (Ekpo, 1996). These vices maybe were the products of the prevalent low self-concept formation in some Nigerian adolescents.

The above scenario experienced among Nigerian adolescents conforms with the later findings expressed by Olowu (1983, 1985) in Nigeria, Mwanalushi (1979) in Zambia and Krystall (1973) in Kenya, that the changes in the socialization environment and the process of people, particularly the youths in developing/transitional societies had a warping effect on the self-concepts of adolescents.

REFERENCES

Adamolekun, O. in A. Uba (ed.) (1987), Theories of personality. Ibadan: Claverianum Press.
Agwu, C.U.; Ike, A.N.; & Kalu, I.U. (2006), The extent of Guidance and Counselling Services in the Secondary Schools in Ohafia. Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Akinboye, J.O. & Nzewi, U.M. (1995), Practical teaching handbook. Ibadan: Afrika-Link Books (A division of Africa-Lin Communication Ltd.).
Amao, A.O. & Jekinde, A.O. (1993), The Relationship between self-concept and personal-social adjustment of male and female adolescents. Journal of Research in Curriculum 7: 127 – 136.
Bandura, A. & Walters, R. (1963), Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bolger, K.E.; Patterson, C.J. & Kupersmidt, J.B. Peer relationships and self- esteem among children who have been maltreated, 69, 4: 1171 -1197.

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