Effects of Kaduna Refinery Effluent on the Water Quality of Romi River : Current School News

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Effects of Kaduna Refinery Effluent on the Water Quality of Romi River, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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Effects of Kaduna Refinery Effluent on the Water Quality of Romi River, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The study examined the effects of Kaduna refinery effluents on the water quality of River Romi Kaduna State. The study was conducted within three (3) months and aimed at assessing the effect of KRPC effluent on water quality of the river before, after, and at the point of discharge, effect on farming, swimming, and fishing activities.

A structured questionnaire was designed to source information from farmers and the Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

The before and after the point of discharge mean values for ph7.45 and 6.72, Temperature34oC and 34oc, TSS 68mg/l and 96.0mg/l, TDS 300mg/l and 324mg/l, Turbidity 12NTU and 16 NTU, Colour is light brown, Oil and grease 2.7mg/l and 4.7mg/l, BOD 3.45mg/l and4.37mg/l, COD 45mg/l and 66mg/l, DO 6.7mg/l and 6.4mg/l, NO30.2mg/l and 0.7mg/l, Cu0.2mg/l and 0.36mg/l, Fe0.93mg/l and 0.2mg/l, Zn 0.27mg/l and 0.36mg/l, Pb0.221mg/l and 0.228mg/l, Cd0.022mg/l and 0.024mg/l, As 0.045mg/land and Cr0.22mg/l and 0.21mg/l were estimated.

The laboratory results were compared with the permissible limit allowed by NESREA and WHO and the result reveals that ph, Oil, and grease are within the standard at upstream and downstream but deviates at the discharge point.

While Temperature, EC, TSS, TDS, Turbidity, COD, Pb, Cd, and Cr at all the three sampling sites are above NESREA and WHO standards. DO, NO3, Fe, Cu, and Zn values are within the permissible limits also Colour is light brown upstream, downstream, and at the discharge point.

Statistical techniques were employed in the analysis of the data collected from the respondents to determine the effect of the effluents and the results revealed that river Romi has become contaminated by the effluents discharged. It was observed that the farmers have been experiencing a reduction and loss of fish production.

The solution proffered includes rehabilitation and cleaning of effluent water retention pond so that effluents water should be treated before discharge. Kepa and NESREA should ensure compliance with the national standards for drinking water quality guidelines.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…….i

Declaration……………………………………… ii

Certification………………………. iii

Dedication……………………………….. iv

Acknowledgements……………………….. v

Abstract……………………………….. vii

Table of Contents……………………. viii

List of Tables………………………. xii

List of Figures…………………… xiii

List of Plates…………………………… xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study……………………………… 1
  • Statement of the Research Problem…………………… 6
  • Aim and Objectives of the Study……………………….. 9
  • Scope of the Study……………………………………. 10
  • Justification of the Study…………………………. 10

CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Introduction………………………………………………………………………….. 12
  • Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………… 12
  • Literature Review……………………………………………………………….. 13
  • Nature of Toxic Waste…………………………………………….. 16
  • Petrochemicals……………………………………………………. 17
    • Laboratory Process Unit of KRPC…………………………….. 17
    • Waste Water Treatment Unit (wwt) of KRPC…………………. 17
    • Solid Waste Sources of KRPC………………………………………. 18
    • Solid Wastes Dump Site at area W of KRPC…………………… 18
  • Effects of Water Pollution on Human Health and Aquatic Organisms…………………… 19
  • Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality………………………………… 21
  • Statutory Provisions……………………………………………………….. 22
  • National Effluent Limitation Regulation S1.8 Of 1991………………………………………… 23
    • Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilitates Generating Waste S1.9 of 1991…. 23
    • Waste Management Regulations S.1.15 of 1991………………………………………………….. 24
    • National environmental standards and regulations enforcement agency (NESREA) 2009 24
  • Previous Studies on Effluent Discharge……………………………………………………………… 24

CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction………………………………………………………….. 29
  • Study Area………………………………………………………………… 29
    • Location…………………………………………………………………. 29
    • Climate…………………………………………………………………. 32
    • Soils 32
    • Vegetation………………………………………………………… 33
    • Drainage, Relief, and Geology…………………………………… 33
    • Population and Human Activities……………………………………… 34
  • Methodology…………………………………………………………………………. 35
    • Reconnaissance Survey of the Study Area……………………………. 35
    • Types of Data……………………………………………………………….. 35
    • Sources of Data………………………………………………………………….. 35
    • Sampling Technique and Sample Size…………………………………….. 36
    • Techniques of Data Analysis……………………………………………… 38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Introduction…………………………………. 42
  • The Level of Pollution of Romi River…………………………. 42

4.2.3   Difference between the Two Sections……………… 48

  • Observed Concentrations Compared With WHO/NESREA Standard…………………… 52
  • Effects of Pollution of Romi River on Some Selected Human Activities……………….. 59
    • Age Distribution of Respondents………………………………………………………………………. 59
    • Location of Farmlands of Respondents……………………………………………………………… 61
    • Respondents Experience in Farming……………………………………………………………… 61
    • Effects of the Effluent on Farming, Fishing, Swimming,  Cooking  and Drinking…. 62
    • The Effect of Effluent on the Respondents Farmlands………………………………………… 63
    • The Effect of Effluent on the Fishes in River Romi………………………………………… 64
    • The Effect of Effluent on the Domestic Uses (Swimming, Bathing, Cooking, Drinking, and Livestock Watering)………………………………………………………………………………. 64

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduction………………………………………. 66
  • Summary of the Major Findings……………. 66
  • Conclusion………………………………………. 68
  • Recommendations…………………………… 69

References…………………………70

Appendices……………………….. 78

INTRODUCTION

Water is a natural resource of fundamental importance; supports all forms of life and creates jobs and wealth, tourism, recreation, and fisheries (Ntengwe, 2005). Without water life, as it exists on our planet is impossible (Asthana and Asthana, 2001).

Water is an important geomorphic agent playing a significant role in weathering the most important energy regulator in the heat budget of the earth (Ayoade, 1988). Freshwater, therefore, is a renewable resource, yet the world’s supply of clean, freshwater is steadily decreasing.

Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world, and as the world population continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, many more areas are expected to experience this imbalance in the near future(Wikipedia,2008).

The demand for freshwater has increased with the ever-increasing population in the world. About half of the people that live in developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water and 73% have any sanitation and some of their wastes eventually contaminate their drinking water supply leading to a high level of suffering (Vivian, Bashiru, and Adamu,2012).

REFERENCES

Abui,Y.M. (2012). Environmental effect of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company effluents discharge in the Romi area of Kaduna State. Unpublished PhD Dissertation submitted to the department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos,Nigeria.
Adamu, U.F. (2003).Water Quality Evaluation of Rigasa(downstream).Unpublished project, National Institute of Water resources,Kaduna.
Ademorati, C.M.A. (1979).Studies on Physicochemical Methods of Wastewater Treatment Ph.DDissertation.University of London pp394.
Ademorati, C.M.A. (1983).The Effect of Pollution on an Impounded Lake in Ibadan.AMAN,(3)1:47-66.
Adetola, K. (1990). Notes and Model Answers on Geography for Secondary School Certificate andG.C.E Revised and Enlarged Edition.
Africa Report Prepared for Poster Presentation at the Open Meeting of The Global Environmental Change Research Community, Montreal, Canada.

CSN Team.

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