Effects of Laboratory Exercises on Science Secondary School Students’ : Current School News

Effects of Laboratory Exercises on Science Secondary School Students’ Performance in Chemistry

Effects of Laboratory Exercises on Science Secondary School Students’ Performance in Chemistry.

ABSTRACT

This research work investigated the effects of laboratory exercises on science  secondary school students’ performance in chemistry, in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

In most of the literature reviewed, the final outcome favoured laboratory exercises. Quasi experimental and descriptive survey research were employed in this study.

In quasi experimental design the researcher selected six (6) schools out of 372 science schools across the state. Similarly, 31 schools were selected for survey research, questionnaire was used to collect data.

The six sample schools are from the central educational zone selected through stratified sampling technique.

Four research questions and two hypotheses were formulated in conformity with the stated objectives. The reliability of the twenty test items were obtained through pilot study, using Pearson Product  Moment Correlation Co-efficient r=0.78.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page———— i

DEDICATION—— ii

CERTIFICATION——- iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS——- iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS——– vi

LIST OF TABLES——— x

ABSTRACT———– xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study—— 1
  • Statement of the Problem——- 4
  • Objectives of the Study———- 5
  • Research Questions———– 5
  • Null Hypotheses——— 6
  • Significance of the Study—- 6
  • Scope and Delimitation of the Study——- 6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction———— 8
  • Definition and Historical Perspective of Science Laboratory——- 8
  • Origin of the Experimental Science——- 11
  • Importance of Laboratory Work in Secondary Schools—— 12
  • Effective Design of Laboratory Learning Exercise— 16
  • Gender in Science Learning——– 19
  • Improvisation of Laboratory Equipments——- 20
  • Science Teaching Method——- 22
  • Safety in Laboratory——— 22
  • Review of Empirical Studies——- 24
  • Summary and Uniqueness of the Study— 26

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction——— 28
  • Research Design——– 28
  • Population of the Study——– 29
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques——– 29
  • Instruments for Data Collection——- 31
  • Validity of the Instruments——- 31
  • Reliability of the Instruments——- 32
  • Administration of the Instrument———– 33
  • Method of Data Analysis——- 33

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Introduction————35
  • Research Questions——— 35
  • Null Hypotheses Testing——- 38
  • Summary of Major Findings——– 40
  • Discussion of Findings——– 41

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduction———- 44
  • Summary of the Study—— 44
  • Conclusion——– 46
  • Implications of the Study———- 46
  • Limitations of the Study——– 47
  • Recommendations——– 47
  • Suggestions for Further Studies—– 48

References—- 49

Appendices      53

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Laboratory is a focal point for all scientific activities. It is usually equipped with tools that facilitate effective teaching and learning of science.

Science is experimental in nature and the laboratory helps to enhance scientific knowledge through the process of science (observing, classifying, measuring and interaction with objects and events of scientific interest).

Abdullahi, (1982), emphasizes that science is not science unless it is accompanied by laboratory exercises i.e putting theories into practice. Laboratory provides ideal setting for skill development, discovery learning, inquiry and problem solving activities.

Laboratory work is a range of activities from true experimental investigation to confirmatory exercises and skill acquisition. Since science is experimental in nature, any course in science should reflect this by introducing laboratory work.

This is because, it is in the laboratory that learners learn science through precise measurement, accurate observation and clarity in Communication (Muhammad, 2010).

REFERENCES

Archibong A.U (1997). The relative effectiveness of Activity Based Approach and lecture method on a Cognitive Achievement of Integrated Science Students. Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria. 23(182) 3037.

Bonwell, C.C. and Esison, J.A. (1999). Active learning: creating excitement in classroom, ASHE-ERIC higher education Report No.1, Washington DC, Eric clearing House on Higher Education. George Washington DC, University.

Bajah, S.T. (1984). Continuous assessment and practical work in science teaching: A plea for pragmatism. Journal of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria, 22(2), 43-48

Bates, G.C (1978). The role of laboratory in secondary school science programs, in M.B Rowe (Ed.), What research says to the science teacher, Vol 1 (Pp. 55-82). Washington D.C. National Science Teacher Association.

Benneth, S.W and O’ Neale K, (1998). Progressive development of practical skills in chemistry, London The Royal Society of chemistry.

Brunner, J. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31(1), 21-23 Carnduff J. and Reid N, (2003). 

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