Effects Of Marijuana Smoking On Some Cardiac Enzymes In Albino Rats : Current School News

Effects Of Marijuana Smoking On Some Cardiac Enzymes In Albino Rats

Effects Of Marijuana Smoking On Some Cardiac Enzymes In Albino Rats.

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of marijuana smoking on cardiac enzymes in Albino rat. A total of 18 albino rats were used in this study, they were grouped into three groups of six(6) rats each.

The first group received only feed and distilled water and they served as control while the second group received feed, water and 10mg of marijuana leaves and the third group received feed, water and 20mg of marijuana leaves.

The samples were collected by cardiopuncture with the aid of sterile syringe and needle and the statistical analysis was carried out using statistical packages for social sciences(SPSS) version 20·

The result obtained showed that the final body weight in the group 2 rats (99.4±4.48) and group 3 rats(85.4±3.68)  was significantly decreased (P<0.05) when compared with the  final body weight in group1 rats (202.0±15.3).

The final body weight in the  group 2 rats  (99.4±4.48) was significantly increased(P<0.05) when compared with the final body weight in the group3 rats(85.4±3.68).

The mean value of AST(13.0±6.0) , ALT(17.38±7.22), LDH(30.63±9.97) and CK-MB(47.38±13.13) was significantly increased(P<0.05) in the Group 2 rats when compared with the mean value of AST(7.38±4.47), ALT(10.88±3.38), LDH(20.88±10.09) and CK-MB(17.25±7.25) in the Group 1 rats .

The mean value of AST(25.83±9.42), ALT (30.17±12.86), LDH(47.83±), and CK-MB(66.0±17.93) in Group 3 rats was significantly increased(P<0.05) when compared with the mean value of AST(7.38±4.47), ALT(10.88±3.38), LDH(20.88±10.09) and CK-MB(17.25±7.25) in the Group 1 rats.

This finding showed that marijuana leaves could probably have a cardiopathologic effect and can cause many cardiovascular diseases.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page      i

Certification       ii

Dedication     iii

Acknowledgement     iv

Abstract    v

Table of content          vi

List of tables      x

List of figures           xi

 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction       1       

1.1     Justification     2

1.2     Aim and Specific objectives             4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW           

2.1     Origin of marijuana           5

2.1.1  Components of marijuana      6

2.1.2  Pharmacological response and metabolism of marijuana            7

2.1.3  Physical and psychological effects of marijuana                   8

2.1.4  The medical value of marijuana        9

2.2     The Heart   10

2.2.1  Position of the Heart           10

2.2.2  Structure of the Heart            11

2.2.3  The interior of the Heart      14

2.2.4   Flow of blood through the Heart        15

2.2.5   Conductive system of the  Heart     16

2.2.6 Nerve supply to the Heart         17

2.2.7  Blood pressure       18

2.3   Diseases of the Heart       19

2.3.1 Atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction    19

2.3.2 Heart failure      20

2.4   Cardiac Enzymes            20

2.4.1 Creatine Kinase                20

2.4.2 Lactate dehydrogenase        22

2.4.3 Transaminase               23

2.5    Marijuana smoking and the Heart        25

2.6    Marijuana smoking and Heart enzymes         26

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                   

3.1     Animals              29

3.2     Drug procurement       30

3.3     Drug Dosage        30

3.4     Experimental  design      30

3.5      Collection of blood    31

3.6      Laboratory procedures        31

3.7     Statistical analysis    37

   CHAPTER FOUR : RESULT AND ANALYSIS

 4.0    Result and Analysis        38

   CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.1        Discussion     42

5.2        Conclusion    43

5.3        Recommendation      44

REFERENCES        45

APPENDICES       50

 INTRODUCTION

Marijuana is derived from the hemp plant cannabis sativa which is grown in many tropical areas in the world.  It is a green or grey mixture of dried, shedded flower and leaves.

Marijuana is the most often used illegal drug in the United States. Most users roll loose marijuana into a cigarette called a “Joint” (William and Thomas, 2005).

Some users mix marijuana into food or use it to brew tea, hash users either smoke the drug in a pipe or mix it with tobacco and smoke it as cigarette.

Most researchers agreed that there is only one extract (sativa) with variant, while others believe that there are only three different extracts which include: Dranabinol (2,9-tetrahydrocannabinol), cannabinol and cannabidol (Agurell et al., 2000).

Due to its nature as a substance of abuse, it is unlawful to posses or supply cannabis. Thus it is difficult to obtain precise estimate about the extent of its use.

Data from 2013/2014 survey in Britain suggest that over 3.3 million people used cannabis that year (Chivite et al., 2014). From a New-Zealand birth cohort of 1265 children it was found that by the age of 21 nearly 70% has used cannabis (Fergusson and Hawood, 2011)

The heart is a muscular organ in all vertebrates which is responsible for pumping the blood by the repeated rhythmic contraction and involuntary muscles, it is supplied by the coronary circulation and enclosed by  a sac  known as the pericardium and it is surrounded by the lungs (Malton et al., 2009).

  REFERENCES

Aird, W.C.(2011). “Discovery of the cardiovascular system: From Galen to William Harvey”. Journal Of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.  9(5):118-129.

Agurell, S.I., Dewy, W.L and Willet, R.W (2002). The Cannabinoids “Chemical pharmacologic and therapeutic Aspect” .2nd Edition .Academic press New York Pp 89

Aryana, A., Williams, M.A. and Johnson, D.C (2007). Marijuana  as a trigger of cardiovascular Events. Journal of cardiology 118(2):141-144

Antz, M. (2008). “Electrical Conduction Between The Right And Left Atrium Via The Musculature Of The Coronary Sinus”. Circulation .98(17):1790-1795.

Birminghan, M.K. (2003). Reduction by 9-tetrahydrocannabinol  in the blood pressure of hypertensive rats bearing regenerated Adrenal glands. Journal  of pharmacology.148(1):169-171

Bonde, P.A. and Persson, P.B.(2014). “Form And Function In The Vascular       System”.Acta Physiologyca.211(3):468-470.

Boucek, .R.J., Kasselberg, A.G., Boerth, R.C., Parrish, M.D. and Graham, T.P.   (2002). “Myocardial injury in infants with congenital heart disease:  evaluation by creatine kinase MB isoenzyme analysis”. American Journal of   Cadiology. 50(1):129-135.

Carl A.B., David E.B. and Barbara G.S. (2015). Cardiac functions in: Teitz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics .7th edition Elsevier, India Pp 683-689

Chivite-Matthew, N., Richardson, A.O. and Shea, J. (2014). Drug Abuse Declared findings from the 2013/214 British survey. Annals of Academic Science    120(5):160-170

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