Effects of Modelling and Token Reinforcement Techniques on Shy : Current School News

Effects of Modelling and Token Reinforcement Techniques on Shy Behaviour among Secondary School Students of Kano State, Nigeria



Effects of Modelling and Token Reinforcement Techniques on Shy Behaviour among Secondary School Students of Kano State, Nigeria.


The study investigated the effect of modelling and token reinforcement techniques on shy behaviour among secondary school students in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. A Quasi-experimental design involving a pretest-posttest control group was employed for the study.

A purposeful sampling technique was used in selecting the sample of thirty shy students out of the population of one hundred and six identified shy students. The sampled shy students were assigned to two experimental and one control group.

One of the experimental groups was treated with a modelling technique while the other one was treated with a token reinforcement technique. A shy behaviour observational checklist was adapted and used in the study by teachers in selecting the shy students.

All three groups were pre-tested and post-tested using the shyness personality scale (SPS) designed by Akinade (2012). Five null hypotheses guided this investigation and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analyzed using paired sample t-test, t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The finding revealed that modelling treatment had significant effects in reducing the shy behaviour among the respondents (t=2.26, p=.000), token reinforcement treatment was also effective in reducing shy behaviour among the respondents (t=2.26, p=.000).


Generally, shy behaviour has been an issue of great interest in counselling psychology for the past 38 years, and researchers such as Zimbardo (1977), Leary (1986) and Akinade (2012) have contributed to the understanding of this phenomenon.

In recent years, prevention of problem behaviours has become a major focus as a matter of importance to all those concerned with the education of young ones in Nigerian Secondary Schools. There is a wealth of research dealing with many effects behaviour problem has on students, among students, with teachers and the society in general.

Problem behaviour among students disrupts students‟ learning and entire academic progress. Many teachers, counsellors, educational psychologists, resource teachers of learning and behaviour, special education workers and schools constantly seek out evidence-based intervention to reduce inappropriate or problem behaviour among students.

Shyness is among the problem behaviours that require intervention. It is a behaviour that affects how a person feels and behaves around others. It also means feeling uncomfortable, self-conscious, nervous, bashful, timid or insecure. People who feel shy sometimes notice physical sensations like blushing or feeling speechless, shaky or breathless. Shyness is the opposite of being at ease with oneself around others.

For more clarification on this concept of shyness, some scholars like Christopher (2008) stated that the concept of Shyness may be defined experientially as discomfort and/or inhibition in interpersonal situations that interferes with pursuing one‟s interpersonal or professional goals.


Akinade, E. A. & Awolabi, T., (2010). Research Methods. A pragmatic approach for Social Science, Behavioural Sciences and Education. Published by Connel Publications Ltd.
Akinade, E. A., (2012). Shyness Personality Scale (SPS) Lagos State University press, Lagos, Nigeria.
Allison, L. A., Felix, B. & Ilene, S. S. (2005). Effects of video modelling alone and with self- management on compliment giving behaviours of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Monterey Bay. Retrieved on 25th March, 2014 from: ttp://www. Tep.ucsd.edu/about/courses/…/Autism-video%modelling.pdf
Alyce Avenell., (2012). Using Video Modelling and Role Playing Activities to Teach Social Skills to Middle School Students with Intellectual Disabilities. Monterey Bay. Retrieved on25th March, 2014 from:http://www.ebookszip:com/…/vedio-modelling-role-playing- and- skills-96952.pdf
Anna, K. & mclaughlin. T. (2007). Effects of a Token Reinforcement System to Improve Social and Academic Behaviour with a Rural primary aged child with disabilities. Journal of Special Education. Vol. 22. No 3 Gonzaga University. Retrieved on 25th March, 2014 from:www.drleashabarry.com/pbs/week08/token%20reinforcement%20articles.pdf
Anika, K. B. (2010). The effects of Video Self-Modelling on elementary students on-task behaviour as a response to intervention. Retrieved on 26th March, 2014 from:http:www. Uwec.edu/csd/grad/current/up-load/Video- self.pdf

CSN Team.



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