Electrical Energy Efficiency Improvement in Commercial Buildings : Current School News

Electrical Energy Efficiency Improvement in Commercial Buildings

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Electrical Energy Efficiency Improvement in Commercial Buildings.

ABSTRACT

The study used energy audit to determine where, when, why and how electrical energy is being used in selected bank buildings in Zaria.

The information was used to identify opportunities to improve efficiency, decrease energy cost and reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data.

Questionnaires were the instruments of the primary data collection while information from manufacturers’ manuals, catalogues and maintenance records of the banks constituted the secondary data.

The findings indicated that the average electrical energy consumption and cost for the four (4) bank buildings are 7,412.26 kWh/month and N63,004.14/month before retrofitting.

The actual energy consumed (estimated wattage Rating on nameplate of appliances/equipment) was also calculated and compared to the consumed energy using One-way ANOVA.

It was concluded that energy usage in the bank buildings involved much wastage especially in the area of lighting, cooling and plug loads. An energy efficiency programme which covers lighting, cooling and the plug loads was recommended.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION……………………………………………………….. iii

CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………. iv

DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………… v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………… vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………… ix

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………….. xiv

LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………. xv

LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………….. xvi

ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………… xvii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………….. 1

1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………… 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………… 3

1.3 Justification of the Study …………………………………………………………………… 4

1.4 Aim and Objectives…………………………………………………………………………… 5

1.4.1 Aim…………………………………………………….. 5

1.4.2 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis/ Questions ……………………………………… 6

1.5.1 Hypothesis ………………………………………………………….. 6

1.5.2 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………… 6

1.6 Scope and Limitations………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.6.1 Scope of the project ……………………………………………………………… 6

1.6.2 Limitations ………………………………………………………………….. 7

1.7 Thesis Outline ……………………………………………………………. 7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………. 9

2.1 Introduction …………………………… 9

2.2 Concept of Energy Consumption and Efficiency in Commercial and

Institutional Buildings ……………………………………………………………………… 10

2.3 Measures of achieving energy efficiency …………………………………………… 11

2.3.1 Commercial buildings ……………………………………………………………………… 11

2.3.2 Institutional buildings ……………………………………………………………………… 12

2.3.3 Space Conditioning …………………………………………………………………………. 13

2.3.4 Lighting …………………………………………… 14

2.3.5 Cooking ……………………………………………………………… 15

2.4 Concept of Electrical Loads in Commercial Buildings ………………………… 15

2.4.1 Air conditioning load ……………………………………………………… 16

2.4.2 Lighting Load …………………………………………………………. 18

2.4.3 Other Electrical Loads ……………………………………………………. 18

2.4.4 Data loads ………………………………………….. 18

2.4.5 Automated Teller Machine (ATM) load …………………………………………….. 19

2.4.6 Power Inverter ………………………………………………………. 20

2.5 Energy Conservation in Commercial Buildings ………………………………….. 20

2.5.1 On-off system …………………………………………………………….. 21

2.5.2 Reduction of Current Value for the Supply of Energy …………………………. 21

2.5.3 Using of Infrared Remote Control for Lighting, Heating and Airconditioning etc. ………. 22

2.5.4 Building Automation ……………………………………………….. 23

2.6 Role of lighting in Energy Consumption and Conservation. …………………. 24

2.6.1 Types of lighting ……………………………………………………. 24

2.7 Lighting Concept ……………………………………………………………. 26

2.7.1 Room-related lighting ……………………………………………………………………… 27

2.7.2 Task area lighting ……………………………………………. 27

2.7.3 Work surface lighting ……………………………………………………………………… 28

2.8 Concept of Electrical Energy Auditing ………………………………………………. 28

2.8.1 Electrical Auditing Process ………………………………………………………………. 29

2.8.2 Overview of the Audit Process …………………………………………………………. 31

2.8.3 Types of Audit …………………………………………. 31

2.8.3.1 Walk-through audit …………………………………………………………………………. 32

2.8.3.2 Standard Audit ……………………………………………….. 32

2.8.3.3 Computer Simulation ………………………………………………………………………. 33

2.8.4 Steps in Energy Auditing …………………………………………………………………. 33

2.9 Energy Efficiency Programme ………………………………………………………….. 37

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS ……………………………………………… 39

3.1 Research Design……………………………………………………………………………… 39

3.2 Population/Sample Study. ………………………………………………………………… 39

3.3 Method of Data Collection. ……………………………………………………………… 39

3.4 Instruments for Data Sources ……………………………………………………………. 40

3.5 Method of Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………. 40

3.5.1 Energy Audit Procedures …………………………………………………………………. 41

3.5.2 Computation of Energy Consumption ……………………………………………….. 42

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION44

4.1 The Bank Units and Operating Schedules ………………………………………….. 44

4.2 Electrical Energy Consumption Pattern (PHCN Bills & Generator Fuel

Used) in the Four (4) Bank Buildings. ……………………………………………….. 45

4.3 The Relationship between Energy Consumed and the Actual Electrical

Loads Profile. …………………………………………………… 47

4.3.1 FinBank ……………………………………………………………… 47

4.3.2 AfriBank……………………………………………………………. 48

4.3.3 UBA …………………………………………………………….. 48

4.3.4 First Bank ………………………………………………………….. 49

4.4 One-way Analysis of Variance (One-way ANOVA) …………………………… 55

4.5 Re-Design and Retrofitting of Lighting Systems in the Four(4) Bank Buildings. ……………. 56

4.5.1 FinBank Building Lighting System and Energy Consumed. ………………… 57

4.5.2 AfriBank Building Lighting System and Energy Consumed. ……………….. 58

4.5.3 UBA Building Lighting System and Energy Consumed. ……………………… 59

4.5.4 First Bank Building Lighting System and Energy Consumed. ……………… 59

4.6 Analysis of Energy Consumed by Cooling System of the Four(4) Bank Buildings . ….. 59

4.6.1 FinBank Building Cooling System (HVAC) and Energy Consumed. ……. 59

4.6.3 UBA Building Cooling System (HVAC) and Energy Consumed. …………. 64

4.6.4 First Bank Building Cooling System (HVAC) and Energy Consumed. …. 66

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION … 70

5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 70

5.1.2 Electrical Energy Consumption Pattern in the Four (4) Bank Buildings … 70

5.1.3 The Relationship between Energy Consumed and the Actual Electrical

Load Profile of the Four (4) Bank Buildings ………………………………………. 71

5.1.3 Re-Design and Retrofitting of Lighting Systems in the Four (4) Bank Buildings ………… 72

5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………. 73

5.3 Recommendations ………………………………………………. 77

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………….. 79

INTRODUCTION

Energy conservation is a process by which the energy required to provide services within residential, institutional and commercial buildings is reduced to a minimum, while achieving the required standard of service delivery.

The architectural features of two buildings can be the same but their power/energy usage can never be the same (Thumann, 2006).

This is the case with all building types including commercial building. Commercial buildings in Nigeria include shops, banks, restaurants, hotels, office buildings etc. (DOE, 2010). The commercial buildings may be of bungalow, low, medium or high-rise design.

Energy is used in commercial buildings for space conditioning, lighting, equipment operation (computers, photocopying machines, Internet Browsing, fax machines etc.), operation of lift/escalators, water heating, cooking, etc.

The energy used in this building sub-sector is mostly electricity with small amount of petroleum products such as LPG and kerosene, which are used for cooking in hotels and restaurants.

Some quantities of petrol and diesel however, are also used for electricity generation in the Sub- sector due to persistent failures of public utilities power supply in Nigeria.

REFERENCES

ASHRAE, 2011, Energy Use and Management, In: ASHRAE, 2003 ASHRAE Handbook,HVAC Applications, SI Edition, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta. P.35.1 – 35.19

CIPEC (2006), Energy Savings Toolbox – an Energy audit Manual and Tool, http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/oee.nrcan.gc.ca/files/files/pdf/energy-auditmanual- and-tool.pdf

Cofer, Steve (2007): Program Manager, Portland Energy Conservation Inc. 503- 595-4472, [email protected] peli.org.

Coia,Anthony (2008): “Energy Smart” Supermarket Energy Conservation News.

Department of Energy (DOE) (2010) office of industrial Technologies,Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.Best Practices Program. Information on energy audit http://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/energyaudit

Ellis,George, (2007): “Let the Sunshine In” Supermarket Energy ConservationNews.

CSN Team.

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