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Environmental Exploration of Conceptual Plastographic Printmaking Technique


Environmental Exploration of Conceptual Plastographic Printmaking Technique


This thesis explores the use of conceptual plastographic printmaking to interrogate visually the concept of Nsimbeghe (nonchalance) in human and social relations. As a concept, Nsimbeghe is an agglomeration of individual and collective nonchalant attitudes which constitute an impediment to purposive progress. This thesis supports and expands the narrative postulations on the subject of Nsimbeghe.

As a creative visual engagement, it is intended to explore a conceptual additive plastographic printmaking as a workable paradigm to situate the philosophy of Nsimbeghe and offer options for articulation of the narrative in visual expressions.

This work is a practice-based research. It adopts the isolation of thematic narratives on related subjects as data for conceptual development and studio exploration in the rendering of finished prints which seek to visually advance arguments for introspection on collective nonchalance and the attendant effect of societal growth and development of the society.

The thesis will rely on the counter notions of the common good as a template for its contra narrative. Finished prints constitute the results of the thesis analyzed as artist statements, the summation of which seeks to deepen the general understanding of a phenomena and how it can be identified and countered in society.

This study is anchored on the theoretical foundation of conceptualism, instrumentalism and formism (imitation) theories which hinges on Qualitative methodology of observational and purposive sampling technique.


Title Page

Declaration                                                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                         iv

Table of Content                                                                                                          v

Abstract                                                                                                                       vi


1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               6

1.3       Aim and Objectives of the Study                                                                   7

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         8

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                               8

1.6       The Scope of the Study/Delimitation                                                             9


2.1       Theoretical Framework                                                                                   11

2.1.1    Conceptual Framework                                                                                   13

2.1.2    Philosophical Concepts                                                                                   14

2.1.3    The Influence of Renaissance and Modern Art Movement Related To

Contemporary Art Concept                                                                           17

2.1.4    Ibibio Traditional Concepts                                                                            23

2.2       Empirical Review Relevance to Conceptual Plastographic Printmaking   29

2.2.1   Origination of Nsimbeghe and the composition of Akwa Ibom People         33

2.3       Per iodization of Existing Literature                                                              43

2.3.1    “Betwixt and Between”                                                                                               43

2.3.2    Endangered species’                                                                                        47

2.3.3    Hope and Optimism”                                                                                      50

2.3.4    “Jaka” by Bode Olaniran (2002) Additive plastograph 90cm by 61cm.        52

2.3.5    The bird (peacock)                                                                                          54

2.3.6    Socio-economic and Philosophical Concept of Nsimbeghe                           56

2.3.7    Micro Measure (Moral perspective) to prevent Nsimbeghe                            59

2.3.8    Macro Measures (Political Perspective) to prevent Nsimbeghe                      60


3.1       Research Design                                                                                             61

3.2       Population for the Study                                                                                61

3.3       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                  61

3.4       Nature/Sources of Data                                                                                  62

3.5       Methods of Data Collection/Instrument                                                         62

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               62

3.6.1    Pilot Study                                                                                                      62

3.6.2    Materials/Equipment                                                                                       63

3.6.3    Techniques or Methods of Execution                                                             65

3.6.4    Drawing Technique                                                                                         65

3.6.5    Linocut Printmaking Technique                                                                      65

3.6.6    Additive Plastograph Technique                                                                    66

3.6.7    Viscosity Plastographic Printmaking                                                              67

3.6.8    Monoprinting Technique                                                                                 67

3.6.9    Mixed Media Technique                                                                                  68


4.1       Cataloguing                                                                                                      70

4.2       Analysis of Exhibited Works                                                                           71

4.3       Categorization of Exhibited Works                                                                71

4.3.1    Exhibited Works                                                                                             73

4.3.2    Examination Social Miscreants                                                                       73

4.3.3    Domination                                                                                                     74

4.3.4    Evil of Slavery                                                                                                78

4.3.5    ‘Almajiris’ (Street Urchins).                                                                             79

4.3.6    Authority                                                                                                        81

4.3.7    Environmental Threat                                                                                      86

4.3.8    Kidnapping                                                                                                     88

4.3.9    Descent from the Cross                                                                                               90

4.3.10 Marginalization and Injustice                                                                           92

4.3.11 Economic Doledrum                                                                                       94

4.3.12  Unemployment                                                                                               97

4.3.13 Price of Indiscipline Mono print                                                                     99

4.3.14 Corruption Malaises                                                                                        102

4.3.15 Poverty and Social Injustice                                                                           104

4.3.16 Oil Multinationals                                                                                           106

4.3.17 Nepotism                                                                                                         108

4.3.18 Embezzlement                                                                                                 110

4.3.19 Extortion:                                                                                                         113

4.3.20 Influence peddling/Influence trafficking:                                                      113

4.3.21 Poor Electricity Supply                                                                                   115

4.3.22 Oil Bunkering and Pipelines Vandalism                                                         118

4.3.23 Interrelation of Data                                                                                        120

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   121


5.1       Summary                                                                                                         122

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      123

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          121

5.4       Contribution to Knowledge                                                                            123



A key concept in this research is that of the Nsimbeghe. This concept has a broader scope in human relations and has impacted much thought in philosophy, sociology, history and cultural studies. Nsimbeghe is defined in accordance with the conception of S. Iniobong Udoidem as a philosophy of nonchalance, unconcerned and aloofness which is designated by uncooperative spirit and unwillingness to give helping hand to those who are in need.

Udoidem gave the antecedent explanations of Nsimbeghe based on the primordial historical conflict that took place between Igbos from Nsukka valley and Ibom groups of Ibibio, who were being forced out of their original settlement while the other Ibibio brothers turned their back against them and abandoned their fellow brothers.

This phenomenon emanated from self-hatred which made Ibom people remained divided, each group hanging as an appendix on folios of other people’s history and continually viewing his own blood brother at home with distrust and suspicion.

The feeling of this disappointment accounted for root cause of distrust and hatred that brought about the negative attribute and ill-fated cultural phenomenon called Nsimbeghe.

According Khaldun (2005) a single human being cannot live by himself alone, because he would be unable to have a complete existence and live a worthy life. By his very nature, man needs the cooperation of others to satisfy all his needs.

This explains one of the reasons why a group formation for societal living is needed contrary to the life of selfish adherence that destroys zest for life.


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CSN Team

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