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Environmental Exploration of Conceptual Plastographic Printmaking Technique
This thesis explores the use of conceptual plastographic printmaking to interrogate visually the concept of Nsimbeghe (nonchalance) in human and social relations. As a concept, Nsimbeghe is an agglomeration of individual and collective nonchalant attitudes which constitute an impediment to purposive progress. This thesis supports and expands the narrative postulations on the subject of Nsimbeghe.
As a creative visual engagement, it is intended to explore a conceptual additive plastographic printmaking as a workable paradigm to situate the philosophy of Nsimbeghe and offer options for articulation of the narrative in visual expressions.
This work is a practice-based research. It adopts the isolation of thematic narratives on related subjects as data for conceptual development and studio exploration in the rendering of finished prints which seek to visually advance arguments for introspection on collective nonchalance and the attendant effect of societal growth and development of the society.
The thesis will rely on the counter notions of the common good as a template for its contra narrative. Finished prints constitute the results of the thesis analyzed as artist statements, the summation of which seeks to deepen the general understanding of a phenomena and how it can be identified and countered in society.
This study is anchored on the theoretical foundation of conceptualism, instrumentalism and formism (imitation) theories which hinges on Qualitative methodology of observational and purposive sampling technique.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Significance of the Study 8
1.6 The Scope of the Study/Delimitation 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework 11
2.1.1 Conceptual Framework 13
2.1.2 Philosophical Concepts 14
2.1.3 The Influence of Renaissance and Modern Art Movement Related To
Contemporary Art Concept 17
2.1.4 Ibibio Traditional Concepts 23
2.2 Empirical Review Relevance to Conceptual Plastographic Printmaking 29
2.2.1 Origination of Nsimbeghe and the composition of Akwa Ibom People 33
2.3 Per iodization of Existing Literature 43
2.3.1 “Betwixt and Between” 43
2.3.2 Endangered species’ 47
2.3.3 Hope and Optimism” 50
2.3.4 “Jaka” by Bode Olaniran (2002) Additive plastograph 90cm by 61cm. 52
2.3.5 The bird (peacock) 54
2.3.6 Socio-economic and Philosophical Concept of Nsimbeghe 56
2.3.7 Micro Measure (Moral perspective) to prevent Nsimbeghe 59
2.3.8 Macro Measures (Political Perspective) to prevent Nsimbeghe 60
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 61
3.2 Population for the Study 61
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 61
3.4 Nature/Sources of Data 62
3.5 Methods of Data Collection/Instrument 62
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 62
3.6.1 Pilot Study 62
3.6.2 Materials/Equipment 63
3.6.3 Techniques or Methods of Execution 65
3.6.4 Drawing Technique 65
3.6.5 Linocut Printmaking Technique 65
3.6.6 Additive Plastograph Technique 66
3.6.7 Viscosity Plastographic Printmaking 67
3.6.8 Monoprinting Technique 67
3.6.9 Mixed Media Technique 68
CHAPTER FOUR: CATALOGING AND ANALYSIS OF EXHIBITED WORKS
4.1 Cataloguing 70
4.2 Analysis of Exhibited Works 71
4.3 Categorization of Exhibited Works 71
4.3.1 Exhibited Works 73
4.3.2 Examination Social Miscreants 73
4.3.3 Domination 74
4.3.4 Evil of Slavery 78
4.3.5 ‘Almajiris’ (Street Urchins). 79
4.3.6 Authority 81
4.3.7 Environmental Threat 86
4.3.8 Kidnapping 88
4.3.9 Descent from the Cross 90
4.3.10 Marginalization and Injustice 92
4.3.11 Economic Doledrum 94
4.3.12 Unemployment 97
4.3.13 Price of Indiscipline Mono print 99
4.3.14 Corruption Malaises 102
4.3.15 Poverty and Social Injustice 104
4.3.16 Oil Multinationals 106
4.3.17 Nepotism 108
4.3.18 Embezzlement 110
4.3.19 Extortion: 113
4.3.20 Influence peddling/Influence trafficking: 113
4.3.21 Poor Electricity Supply 115
4.3.22 Oil Bunkering and Pipelines Vandalism 118
4.3.23 Interrelation of Data 120
4.4 Discussion of Findings 121
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 122
5.2 Conclusion 123
5.3 Recommendations 121
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 123
A key concept in this research is that of the Nsimbeghe. This concept has a broader scope in human relations and has impacted much thought in philosophy, sociology, history and cultural studies. Nsimbeghe is defined in accordance with the conception of S. Iniobong Udoidem as a philosophy of nonchalance, unconcerned and aloofness which is designated by uncooperative spirit and unwillingness to give helping hand to those who are in need.
Udoidem gave the antecedent explanations of Nsimbeghe based on the primordial historical conflict that took place between Igbos from Nsukka valley and Ibom groups of Ibibio, who were being forced out of their original settlement while the other Ibibio brothers turned their back against them and abandoned their fellow brothers.
This phenomenon emanated from self-hatred which made Ibom people remained divided, each group hanging as an appendix on folios of other people’s history and continually viewing his own blood brother at home with distrust and suspicion.
The feeling of this disappointment accounted for root cause of distrust and hatred that brought about the negative attribute and ill-fated cultural phenomenon called Nsimbeghe.
According Khaldun (2005) a single human being cannot live by himself alone, because he would be unable to have a complete existence and live a worthy life. By his very nature, man needs the cooperation of others to satisfy all his needs.
This explains one of the reasons why a group formation for societal living is needed contrary to the life of selfish adherence that destroys zest for life.
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