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Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Coconut Seed (PDF)

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Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Coconut Seed 

ABSTRACT

Oil from coconut seed was extracted and characterized. The physicochemical parameter of the extracted oil was determined by standard methods of analysis.

The saponification (mgKOH/g oil), acid, peroxide (mg/peroxide/kg), and Iodine (mgiodine/100g) and specific gravity value was 254, 1.20, 0.40, 9.30. the solvents demonstrated similar properties in all the analysis.

The data shows that the seed oil is preferable as edible inferring from its low acid value. From the results, the seed oil has great potential in cosmetics, candle and soap making industry because of it high saponification value.

The low iodine and peroxide values suggested that it is non-drying oil, contain few unsaturated bonds, have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration.

Keyword: Coconut, Saponification value, Acid value, Peroxide value, Specific gravity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

  1. CERTIFICATION
  2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of table

List of figures

CHAPTER ONE

  • 01 INTRODUCTION
  • 02 Background to the study
  • 03 Statement of problem
  • 04 Objectives to the study
  • 05 Significance of the study
  • 06 Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • 01 Literature review
  • 02 Concept of vegetable oil
  • 03 Review of method used in the Extraction of vegetable oils
  • 04 Mechanical extraction
  • 05 Refining of crude vegetable oil
  • 06 Bleaching
  • 07 General chemical characteristics of oil and fats
  • 08 Uses of fats and oil
  • 09 Some physicochemical properties of oil

CHAPTER THREE

  • 1 MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • 1.01 Materials
  • 1.02 Apparatus
  • 1.03 Methods
  • 1.04 Sample collection and sample preparation
  • 1.05 Preperation of reagents
  • 1.06 PROCEDURE
  • 1.07 Determination of acid value
  • 1.08 Determination of iodine value
  • 1.09 Determination of peroxide value
  • Determination of specific gravity

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

List of tables

Physicochemical properties of coconut oil extracted

LIST OF FIGURES

Picture of coconut and its oil

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Plant oil are oils derive from plant sources, as opposed to animal fats or petroleum. Oils derived from plants have been used for thousands of years.

Plant oils have been a healthy alternative to animal derived oils since their discovery. Due to increase in human population and industries, the use of plant oil has drastically increased and as a result, oil from plant is less available and costlier these days unsaturated triglycerides are the main constituents of plant oils (Ahmed, et. al., 1999).

Oils are classified into essential and fixed oils. Essential oils are used to produce perfumes, flavors, deodorants, antiseptics and pharmaceuticals, while fixed oils are often edible because of their nutritional value (Kubow,1990).

The choice of the coconut seed in this work is due to the high yield of oil compared to other parts of the plant. It is an edible oil and have various application in food, medicine and industries (Obasi et. al., 2012).

Oil from coconut is used for cooking and are used as feed stock for biodiesel production. In addition to being used as skin moisturizer (Clark,2011).

Extraction is the process of separation of a substance from a matrix and it can be done either mechanical extraction (expression) or chemical extraction (solvent).

It could be liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase extraction (Young et. al., 1994). In this work extraction of oil from seed was a solid-liquid extraction.

Acid value is the amount of free fatty acid (FFA) present in oil or fat. The value of an oil or fat is the amount of base in milligrams requires to neutralize the free organic acid present in 1gram of fat or oil (Akoh and Nwosu, 1992).

Saponification value of oil or fat is the amount in milligrams of alkali required to neutralize the free fatty acid from complete hydrolysis of the sample. It is a measure of average molecular weights (chain length) of fatty acid present.

Peroxide value is a measure of it peroxide contained in the oil. A solution of oil in the mixture of acetic acid and chloroform is titrated with the solution of potassium iodide (Mattson and Grundy 1985).

Specific gravity or relative density refers to the ratio of the weight of sample to the weight of distilled water. It is given as weight of sample/weight of distilled water. It has no unit.

REFERENCES

Ahmed, S.M.; Bamfleh, S. and Munshi, A. (1999).

Cultivation of Neem ( AzadirachtaIndica) in Saudi Arabia, Econ. Bot, Vol-43 pp 35-38.

Akoh, C.C and Nwosu, C.V. (1992). Fatty acid composition of melon seed oil lipids and phospholipids, J. Am, oil chem. Soc., vol. 69, pp 314-317 American Heart Association AHA. (2010). Polyunsaturated fats, J. science p.67

BobyVaghese and S.C. Naithani, (2000). Dessication stress in neem seeds, physiological and biochemical consideration, European international journal of science and technology, vol. 4 (7), pp 89-93

Charment, O.; Moussata, D. and Akoh, C.C (1997). Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of oleic acid into melon seed oil, J. Am. Oil chem. Soc., vol.74, pp. 177-179.

Clark, M (2011). Once a villain coconut oil charms the health food world, the New York times retrieved 2012-03-02.

Evbuomwan, B.O.; Felix- Achor, I. and Opute, C.C. (2015). Extraction and characterization of oil from neem seeds, leaves and barks, European international journal of science and technology, vol.4 No.7. pp 1-7.

Harwood, J.C. and Palley F.D. (2011). The lipid hand book, 2nd edition Chapman and Hall London, pp 249-275.

Heraldsson G. (1983). Degumming, Developing and Reforming, Journal of American Oil chemist society, 60(2): 251-256.

Mattson, F.H. and Grundy, S.M. (1985). Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoprotein in man, J. lipids Res., 26, pp. 194-202

Kubow, S. (1990). Toxicity of dietary lipid peroxidation products, trends food sci- technology vol.1, pp.67-71.

Nutrition fact at a glance (2009). Nutrients saturated fat, food and drug administration, retrieved 2011-03-16.

Okene E.O., Evbuomnan, B.O. (2014). Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from coconut seed using alternative solvents international journal of engineering and technical research, vol. 2 (12), p 45

Obasi, N.A.; Ukadilonu, J.; Eberechukwu, E.I.; Akubugwo, F. and Okorie, N.H. (2012). Proximate composition characterization and comparative assessment of coconut and melon vol.4, pp 12-45

CSN Team.

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