Ads: Get Admission into 200 Level and Study any Course in any University of Your Choice. Low Fees | No JAMB UTME. Call 09038456231

Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Pork Oil

Filed in Chemistry Project Topics, Current Projects by on October 27, 2020

ADS! Diabetes Permanent Solution! Only 15 Packs Left. HURRY!!!


Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Pork Oil.

ABSTRACT

Pork oil was extracted through dry rendering from pork obtained from a local slaughter house in Samaru, Zaria. The physicochemical properties (refractive index, saponification value, percent free fatty acid content, iodine value, acid value, peroxide value, melting point, moisture content, hydroxyl value, unsaponifiable matter and ash content) were assessed using standard procedures.

The result obtained compare favourably with recommended physicochemical properties of edible oils, the fatty acid composition of the oil determine by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) shows the major constituent to be oleic acid (46.49%), palmitic acid (28.19%) and stearic acid (19.45%).

The thermal degradation of the oil was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). These were carried out by heating oil at different temperatures) for duration of one hour each. Spectra were recorded from a film of each oil sample between two disks of NaCl.

Changes in the value of the frequency of most of the bands of the spectra were observed. The shifts of the frequency value of specific bands allowed for distinction between the different stages of the oxidation process and to establish the degree of oxidation each oil sample.

The elemental analysis of the oil ash using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) shows the presence of Al 2136 ± 175ppm, Ca 4005± 62ppm, Ti 155± 40ppm, V 1.9± 0.3ppm. Mn 87± 9ppm, Na 2022± I13ppm, K 1986 201ppm, As 0.15± 0.01ppm, Br 1.8± 0.1ppm, La 0.46± 0.05ppm, Tb 0.5± 0.1ppm, Sc 0.16± 0.02ppm, Cr 7± 2ppm, Fe 3762± 200ppm, Zn 227± 15ppm and Ba 3611± 345ppm.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page – – – – – – – – – – i
Title page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of content – – – – – – – – – viii
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – xiii
List of tables – – – – – – – – – – xiv
List of appendices – – – – – – – – – xv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Classification – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.1 Fixed Oil and Fat – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.2 Vegetable Oil and Fats – – – – – – – 2
1.1.3 Mineral Oil – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.4 Volatile or Essential Oil – – – – – – – 2
I.1.5 Crude Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.6 Natural Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.7 Modified Fat – – – – – – – – 2
1.1.8 Synthetic Fat – – – – – – – – – 2
1.2 Uses of Animal Oil – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Justification – – – – – – – – – 2
1.4 Aim and Objective – – – – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Sources of Raw Material – –           –           –           –           –           –           5
    • Agricultural Source of Industrial Raw Material – –           –           –           5
    • Fossil Source of Industrial Raw Material – –           –           –           –           5
    • Inorganic Source of Industrial Raw Material – – –           –           –           5
  • Pig Production in Nigeria – –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3       Pork Oil (Lard)            –              7

  • Depot Site and Fatty Acid Composition – –           –           –           –           7
  • Effect of Diet on Lard Fatty Acid Composition – –           –           –           8
  • Non Fatty Acid Containing Component – –           –           –           –           10
  • Occurrence and Formation of Fats and Oil – –           –           –           –           10
    • Catabolism of Fats and Oil – –           –           –           –           –           –           10
    • Metabolism of Fats – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11
  • Constituence and Components of Fats and Oil – –           –           –           12
    • Simple Lipids – – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.5.1.1 Glyceride        –               13

2.5.1.2  Fatty Acids   –           –           14

2.5.1.3  Antioxidants –                    15

2.5.1.4  Pigments       –                     16

2.5.1.5 Vitamins          –                    16

2.4.1.6  Sterols           –     –           16

2.4.1.7  Minor Constituent     –                 –           17

  • The Structure and Composition of Fats – –           —           17
    • Glyceride Structure – –           –           –           –       –           17
    • Classification and Fatty Acid Composition – –  –           –           18
  • The Nature of Fats and Fatty Acids – –                 20
    • Physical Properties – –           –               20
      • Colour and Spectral Properties – –        –           20
      • Refractive Index – –           –           –              21
      • Odour and Flavour – –                –           21

2.7.1.4 Solubility         –                  21

2.7.1.5 Isomerism        –           –             –           22

  • Chemical Properties – –                   22

2.7.2.1  Hydrolysis     –           –      –           23

  • Esterification – –    –           23
  • Saponification – –           –           –           23
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) – –                24
  • Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) – –                 26
    • Analysis Processes – –           –                27
    • Identification – –           –      –           27
  • Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) – –           –              28
    • Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) – – –           28

2.10.2 Analysis           –                  –           29

  • Absolute Method – –             –           30
  • Relative Method – –              –           30
  • Fats and Oil Degradation – –        –           30

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Material and Method  –           –           –           33

3.1       Sample-           –                  –           33

  • Physicochemical Properties – –        –           33
    • Saponification Value –         –           33

3.2.2  Iodine Value    –           –        –           34

3.2.3 Acid Value         –      –           –           36

  • Peroxide Value – –           –               –           37
  • Hydroxyl Value (Acetyl Value) – – –             –           38

3.2.6 Ash Content       –       –           –           40

  • Unsaponifiable Matter – –                      40
  • Determination of Moisture Content (Air Oven Method) – –           –           42
  • Fatty Acid Composition by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) Principle – –               43
  • Thermal Degradation Study Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry FTIR 45
  • Elemental Analysis Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) – – –           45

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Result and Discussion – – –             –           47
  • Physical and Chemical Properties – –         –           47
  • Fatty Acid Composition of Pork Oil – – –           50
  • Elements in Pork Oil – – –      –           53
  • Pork Oil Thermal Degradation Study Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR                 55

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Conclusion      –               –           –           61

References      –                  –           62

INTRODUCTION

The word oil has little specific meaning as it is applied to wide range of substances that are quite different in chemical nature. They are derived mainly from two main source, plants and animals. In Animals, they occur mainly in form of adipose tissue and as component of cells while in plants they are mostly found in storage organ like seed (Deuel Jr., 1954).

Fats and fatty oil are water insoluble substances of plants and animal Origin which consist mainly of glycerol esters of long chain fatty acids (Kirschenbauer, 1960). As a matter of fact, there is no scientific differentiation between edible oils and fats and the two terms may be used interchangeable. The common distinction between them is to consider solid product as fats and liquid ones as oils.

This difference is temperature dependent at high temperature all edible oils and fats are liquid and at low temperature they appear to be solid. Even this latter statement is only apparently true. As most natural fats while appearing solid at ambient temperature are strictly blends of solid and liquid component (Hopkins, 1973). The products which form this subject could equally well be referred to either as fatty oil or simply fats, irrespective of consistency at ambient temperature.

REFFERENCES

A.O.A.C.(2000) Official Method 920.159 Iodine Absorption Number of Oil and Fats 17th Edition.

A.O.A.C.(2000) Official Method 920/60 Saponification Number of Oil and Fats 17th Edition Abayeh, O.J., Abdulrazak, A.K. and Olaogun, R. (1999). Quality Characteristitics of

Canarium Schweinturthi. Engl. Oil Plant Foods for Human Nutri. 54(1) 43-48

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (1994). Toxicological Profile for Zinc and Cobalt. US Department of Health and Human service. (59 PR 9486). Section104 (i) (3) of CERLA.

Ahmed, S. (2000) Determination of trace element in some Nigeria vegetable base oils by NAA. J. of Rad. and Nuclear Chem. 249(3) 669 – 671.

Ahmed, F.A., Osman, R.O., El Nomany, H.M. and El-Saadary S.S. (1986) Infrared and Ultraviolent Spectra of some Lipids of Different Structures. Grasas Aceites, 37 250- 253.

CSN Team.

Enter your email address:

Delivered by TMLT NIGERIA

Join Over 3,500 000+ Readers Online Now!


=> FOLLOW US ON INSTAGRAM | FACEBOOK & TWITTER FOR LATEST UPDATES

ADS: KNOCK-OFF DIABETES IN JUST 60 DAYS! - ORDER YOURS HERE

COPYRIGHT WARNING! Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Comments are closed.