Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Among Hypertensive : Current School News

Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Among Hypertensive Patients

Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Among Hypertensive Patients.

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a global challenge with high morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is a burdensome disease of global importance, and although prevalent, it is mostly undiagnosed in patients with hypertension. Anxiety is another significant cause of increased BP and is an independent predictor of future hypertension.

The aim of this study is to find out the factors associated with depression and anxiety among hypertensive patients in Umuguma Specialist Hospital, Owerri, Imo State. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Umuguma Specialist Hospital, Owerri, Imo State.

A systematic random sampling method was used to meet the criteria in this research to select a sample size of 334 respondents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. The result shows that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among hypertensive patients is 77.8%.

Out of which 242 (72.5%) were both depressed and anxious, 74 (22.2%) were neither depressed nor anxious, 14 (4.2%) were anxious but not depressed while 4 (1.2%) were depressed but not anxious.

Majority of the patients were from urban areas, married and were retired government employees having monthly income of 18,000-47,000 and more than 70% of them were depressed, anxious or both conditions.

Mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms were present in 73.7%, anxiety in 76.6%, and stress in 31.1% of patients. Anxiety was common among 256 (76.6%) of the hypertensive patients.

The study also showed that alcohol intake,  sleep quality, co-morbidity, social support and dieting habits had independent effects on the inci­dence of depression and anxiety in the patients (P = <0.001, 0.035, 0.006, 0.001 and <0.001, respectively).

Factors such as the use of snuff, smoking of cigarettes, engaging in stressful activities and daily salt intake were found not to have an influence on the prevalence of depression and anxiety on hypertensive patients.

Study findings highlight the need of psychiatric evaluation, counseling, and support services which will keep the heart of these patients in good condition.

The study recommended that Clinical doc­tors should educate their patients, and control precipitating factors, even while admin­istering active antihypertensive medications and antidepressants to prevent disease progression and improve health-related quality of life.

INTRODUCTION

Hypertension is a global challenge with high morbidity and mortality rates. The etiology of hypertension is multi-factorial, which results from the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors.

It predisposes to coronary heart disease and cardiac dysfunction and has deleterious neurological effects on retina, central nervous system, and kidneys. The overall prevalence of raised blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 25 years and over was around 40% in 2008 (WHO, 2011).

However, because of population growth and aging, the number of people with hypertension rises from 600 million in 1980 to 1 billion in 2008 (WHO, 2011). It was seen that awareness of hypertension among those affected by the disease is generally high as compared to the general population.

The WHO celebrates 17th May as “World Hypertension Day” and the main aim of this day is to provide awareness of hypertension so that we can prevent the complications arising out of high BP such as heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, retinal hemorrhage, and atherosclerosis (DeJean D, Vanstone M, Brundisini F, Giacomini M, 2013).

Besides, it is one of the modifiable risk factors as hypertensive patients also experience many profound emotions which increase their risk for the development of mental health disorders, particularly anxiety and depression (Vetere G, Ripaldi L, Ais E, Korob G, Kes M, Villamil A., 2007).

Depression is a burdensome disease of global importance, and although prevalent, it is mostly undiagnosed in patients with hypertension. The research evidence suggests that anxiety is another significant cause of increased BP and is an independent predictor of future hypertension (Sushil Kumar Sharma, Vineeta Sawhney, 2016).

REFERENCES

Aberha M, Gebeyehu A, Ayano G. (2016). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anxiety among Patients with Hypertension on Follow Up at Menelik-II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia. J Psychiatry , 19: 378.

AHA. (2016, October). Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from American Heart Association: www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/MakeChangesThatMatter/Managing-Stress-to-Control-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301883_Article.jsp#mainContent

Bernard Agyei, Mary Nicolaou, Linda Boateng, Henriette Dijkshoorn, Bert-Jan van den Born, Charles Agyemang. (2014). Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands – the GHAIA study. BMC Public Health , 14:692.

Chris Woolston, M. (2017, January 20). Depression and High Blood Pressure. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from HealthDay: consumer.healthday.com/encyclopedia/depression-12/depression-news-176/depression-and-high-blood-pressure-644943.html

DeJean D, Giacomini M, Vanstone M, Brundisini F. (2013). Patient Experiences of Depression and Anxiety with Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-synthesis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser , 13:1-33.

Egan, B. M. (2017, January 30). Treatment of Hypertension in Blacks. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from UpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com

Igwe MN, Uwakwe R, Ahanotu CA, Onyeama GM, Bakare MO, Ndukuba AC. (2013). Factors associated with depression and suicide among patients with hpertension. African Health Sciences , 68-77.

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Comments are closed.