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Gender Disparity and Human Resource Development

 – Gender Disparity and Human Resource Development – 

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The specific aim was to examine the relationship between poverty and human resource development, to examine the relationship between early marriage and human resource development.

To examine the relationship between societal belief and human resource development and to ascertain the relationship between educational quality and human resource development.

Three (3) research hypotheses were formulated in line with the objective of the study.

The study analyses the conceptual meaning of gender disparity and human resource development and it’s theories in literature review.

The Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size from the total population of the administrative staff in Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Works Uyo, 100 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents while 85 of them were duly answered and returned to the researcher.

Data were analyzes using simple percentage (%), Pearson’s Products Moment Correlation Coefficient. From the analysis, it was discovered that there is a relationship between poverty and human resources development.

It was discovered that there is a relationship between early marriage and human resources development. It was also discovered that there is a relationship between societal belief and human resource development.

The study also reveals that there is a relationship between educational quality and human resources development. It was recommended that there should be no disparity among employees. This will enhance performance in the organization.

Female children should be properly guided on early marriage, female should be given equal working right in the organization just as their male counterpart, government should provide entrepreneurial skill and consideration in terms of promotion to higher level as this will reduce poverty there by reducing early marriage.


Title page      –         i

Declaration        –        ii

Certification        –       iii

Dedication          –       iv

Acknowledgement           v

Abstract       –      vii

Table of Content         –     viii


1.1       Background of the Study        1

1.2       Statement of the Problem            3

1.3        Objectives of the Study-          3

1.4       Research Questions           4

1.5       Statement of Hypothesis           4

1.6       Significance of the Study     5

1.7       Scope of the Study               5

1.8       Limitation of the Study          6

1.9       Definition of terms               6


2.1       Introduction    –                            7

2.2       Conceptual Framework              –           9

2.3       Concept and Meaning of Gender Disparity   –          9

2.3.1    Concept and Meaning of Human Resource Development  11

2.3.2    Approaches of Human Resource Development      13

2.3.4    Effects of Gender Disparity on Human Resource Development        15

2.3.5    Causes of Gender Disparity on Human Resource Development    17

2.3.6   Problem of Gender Disparity on Human Resource Development   22

2.4       Theoretical Framework          24

2.4.1    Theories of Gender Inequality       24

2.4.2    Inequality Theory    25

2.4.3    Modernization Theory          25


3.1       Introduction             26

3.2       Research Design   –      26

3.3       Population of the Study               26

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique           26

3.5       Sources of Data     –             28

3.5.1    Validity and Reliability        28

3.6       Method of Data Collection        28

3.7       Method of Data Analysis              29


4.1       Introduction    –       30

4.2       Brief History of Organization under Study    –    30

4.3       Data Presentation and Analysis                31

4.4       Test of Hypotheses        40

4.5       Discussion of Findings         47


5.1       Summary of Findings            49

5.2       Conclusion      –     49

5.3       Recommendation              51

5.4       Suggestion for Further Research –       51

References      –          52

Appendix           54


1.1 Background to the Study

Gender issues  are central to the attainment of developmental goals and poverty reduction in the society and it plays a prominent role in the United Nation Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which have been commonly accepted as a frame for measuring development progress (McClafferty, 2006).

Harbison (2003) clearly articulates the role of Human Resource Development, and he says that Human Resources constitute the ultimate basis for the Wealth of nations.

Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production while human resource are the active agents who accumulate capital, exploit natural resource, build social economic and political organization and carry out national development.

Clearly a country which is unable to develop the resource effectively in terms of their skill and knowledge and utilize them well in the national economy will not be able to develop anything.

However, what is clear is that the transmission mechanism through which Human Resources (skills and knowledge) are harnessed and enhanced is through formal education which in its own creates opportunities that manifest in highly trained, educated and healthy workforce.

It is against this background that the government of Nigeria in its national policy on education says that education should be for all with no inequality between males and females.

In spite of government gesture, there still exists gender disparity in human resource development in Akwa Ibom State in particular and Nigeria in general.


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