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Genetic Evaluation of Performance and Blood Biochemistry in Japanese Quail

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Genetic Evaluation of Performance and Blood Biochemistry in Japanese Quail.

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted in a Northern Guinea Savannah region to evaluate the growth, reproductive and blood biochemistry parameters of parents and their offspring in Japanese quail.

A total of two hundred and twenty Day-old chicks (DOC) were used in the base generation and six hundred and thirty DOC were used in the first generation. A digital scale of sensitivity (0.01 g) was used to take the weights.

The body measurements taken were the 4-week bodyweight (BW4), 8-week bodyweight (BW8), overall average growth rate (Agr) and relative growth rate (Rgr).

The reproductive parameters studied were the age at sexual maturity (ASM), weight at sexual maturity (WtAsm), egg weight at sexual maturity (EgAsm), average egg weight (Aveg), egg laid at the 11th week of age (Egg11) and the ratio of egg weight to 4-week bodyweight (EgB4), taken from female quails which were individually housed.

In the 6th-week blood biochemistry studied, glucose (Glu) was measured according to Trinder, 1969 while Alkaline-Phosphatase (ALP) was determined according to Kind and King, 1954.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………..……………i
DECLARATION ……………………………..……………………………………iv
CERTIFICATION……………………………………..……………………………v
DEDICATION…………………………………….………………………………vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………vii
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………vii
TABLES OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………xi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………..…xiv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………
1.1 Statement of Research Problem …………………………………………
1.2 Justification ……………………………………………………………..…
1.3 Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………..…
1.4 Objectives ……………………………………………………………..…
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………
2.1 The Japanese Quail …………………………………………………………
2.2 Growth Rates in Japanese Quail………………………………………………
2.3 Body Weight in Japanese Quail………………………………………………
2.4 Body Weight Gain ……………………………………………………………
2.5 Age at Sexual Maturity………………………………………………………
2.6 Body Weight and Reproductive Traits………………………………………
2.7 Egg Production ………………………………………………………………
2.8 Fertility per cent in Japanese Quail……………………………………………
2.9 Mating Ratio …………………………………………………………………
2.10 Blood Parameters in Japanese Quail ………………………………………
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials And Methods ……………………………………………35
3.1 Study Location………………………………………………………………35
3.2 Source of Experimental Birds ………………………………………………35
3.3 Management Practices ………………………………………………………36
3.3.1 Brooding and Rearing ……………………………………………………36
3.3.2 Nutrition …………………………………………………………………36
3.3.3 Mating Procedure …………………………………………………………36
3.3.4 Egg Collection and Hatching ……………………………………………37
3.4 Blood Collection and Laboratory Analysis. ………………………………37
3.5 Recording of Data …………………………………………………………40
3.6 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………40
3.7 Statistical Analysis ……………………………………………………41
CHAPTER 4
4.0 RESULTS …………………………………………………………………43
4.1 Growth and Blood Biochemistry in Japanese Quail………………………43
4.2 Reproductive and Blood Biochemistry in Japanese Quail…………………49
4.3 Correlation between Traits…………………………………………………51
4.4 Repeatability of traits in female Japanese Quail ……………………………59
Chapter 5
5.0 DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………61
5.1. Growth and Blood Biochemistry in Japanese Quail…………………………61
5.1.1 Growth parameters …………………………………………………………61
5.1.2 Glucose and growth parameters ……………………………………………63
5.1.3 Alkaline Phosphatase and Growth…………………………………………65
5.2. Reproductive Traits in Female Japanese Quail ……………………………65
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION …………74
6.1 Summary……………………………………………………………………74
6.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….75
6.3 Recommendation……..………………………………………………………76
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………77

INTRODUCTION

Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) is important livestock in Nigeria and in many nations. It is being farmed as the smallest avian species for meat and egg production (Panda and Singh, 1990).

Its production is favoured because they are generally accepted, requires less time and space, have rapid growth, earlier sexual maturity, greater laying ability, shorter generation interval and resistance to diseases when compared to chickens.

These peculiarities of Coturnix have facilitated its commercial production and rearing; mainly as meat in Europe, eggs in Japan and are often bred as dual-purpose birds in other Asian countries (Minvielle, 1998).

They are also used as laboratory animals for researches (Baumgartner, 1994) and for extensive use in many studies (Kayang et al., 2004) such as for growth, selection and breeding. In Nigeria, it is used for research purposes and commercially reared mainly for egg production.

REFERENCES

Abd El-Azim, A. (1991). Changes in some physiological parameters due to different pre and post hatch temperatures in poultry. Ph.D Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

Abd El-Magid, M.A. (2006). Inheritance of certain plasma constituents and their association with some economic traits in Fayoumi hens. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt.

Abdel Latif, H.A. (2001). Inheritance of certain plasma constituents and their association with some economic traits in Dandarawi and Golden Montazah hens. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriciculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Abdel-Azeem, F.A. (2005). Studies on the effect of different crude fiber levels on laying Japanese quail. (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Egyptian Poultry Science, 25: 241-257.

Abdel-Fattah, M.H. (2001). Inheritance of some growth, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Japanese quail. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum, Cairo University, Egypt.

Abdel-Fattah, M.H. (2006). Selection for increased body weight and growth rate in Japanese quail. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum, University, Egypt.

CSN Team.

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