Haemopoietic and Haematinic Property of the Leaf  and Fruit Extract s : Current School News

Haemopoietic and Haematinic Property of the Leaf and Fruit Extract of Solanum Nigrum L (Spp Villosum) in Anaemic Albino Wistar Rats

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Haemopoietic and Haematinic Property of the Leaf  and Fruit Extract of Solanum Nigrum L (Spp Villosum) in Anaemic Albino Wistar Rats.

ABSTRACT

Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as colonial and economic development. There is paucity of data on the use and type of medicinal plants that can be used to alleviate anaemia.

Sequel to the fact that orthodox medicine can no longer give answers to  our  numerous different diseases in which anaemia is one of them. There  is  an increasing interest  in the use of herbal products to supplement for these drugs.

This research is designed to investigate the haemopoeitic and haematinic properties of the aqueous leaf and fruit extract of Solanum nigrum L (spp villosum) in phenylhydrazine induced anaemic Albino Wistar Rats.

Fresh leaves and fruits of Solanum nigrum were purchased  from our major and local markets  in Enugu Metropolis. They were shade-dried and pulverised to fine powder. 600g each were extracted using aqueous standard method. The extracts were used to carry out this study.

Qualititve phytochemical analysis was done on both the  leaf and fruit extract.  Determination  of iron, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin B12 were done at PRODA. One hundred and ten (110) adult female Albino Wistar Rats were used for this study.

Thirty (30) rats were used for acute toxicity testing while the rest were used for other tests. The rats were divided into eight groups of ten (10) rats per group, labeled A to H.

The mean weight of the animals in  each group was recorded. 500mg of the two extracts (leaf and fruit) and 0.05mls of Astymin were administered to the rats. 4mls of blood were collected from each  rat  via  the  retro-orbital plexus of the median canthus of the eye into EDTA bottles and plain tubes.

They  were anaysled using standard manual and automated methods. Analysis of the complete Blood cell count/bone marrow count of the leaf extract alone revealed  significant increase (p<0.001)  in the Red Blood Cell on day 22 (7.142 x 1012/l±0.82), significant increase (p<0.001) in the total white cell count on day 8 (13.12 x 109/l±2.32)  and  on day 22  respectively (11.98×109/l±2.53).

It also recorded significant decrease (p<0.001) in the Bone marrow count on day 8  and (p<0.05) on day 22 . The fruit extract alone revealed significant increase (p<0.01) in the haematocrit on day 8, (0.46l/l±3.94) and a significant increase (p<0.05) on day  22 (0.45l/l±3.95).

Significant increase (p<0.01) in the Red blood cell was noted on day 22 (7.22×1012/l±0.86). Also significant increase (p<0.05) in the haemoglobin on day 8 was  revealed (14.38g/dl±0.98) when compared with the beseline control.

The  total  white  cell  count also showed significant increase (p<0.001) on day 22 (12.56 x 109/l±3.72). The Bone marrow count of the fruit extract equally showed significant decrease (p<0.01) on day 8 and significant increase (p<0.001) on day 22 (7.100 x 109/l±0.46).

The  phenylhydrazine  group alone also revealed significant decrease (p<0.001) in the haematocrit (0.23l/l±3.40), haemoglobin (7.40g/dl±1.10), and Red blood cell (2.859 x 109/l±0.46) on day 8. Significant increase (p<0.001) in the Retics (1.4%) and no significant change  in all these parameters on day 22.

The Bone marrow count revealed significant decrease (p<0.001) on day 8 (2.11 x 109/l±0.50) and on day22, (2.96±1.20) respectively. The leaf and phenylhydrazine group, fruit and phenylhydrazine groups showed significant changes  in the  complete  blood  cell count,  and significant increase (p<0.05) in the total and differential white cell  count.

The  serum feritin concentration did not show any significant changes in all the groups (p>.05). It can be concluded that Solanum nigrum L leaf and fruit extract has haemopoietic and haematinic properties, as well as anti-bacterial qualities, and therefore can be used in the management of different anaemic condition and in boosting the immune system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – iv
Table of contents- – – – – – – – – v
List of tables- – – – – – – – – ix
List of figures- – – – – – – – – xi
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – xiv

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Causes/aetiology of anaemia- – – – – – 1
1.3 Prevalence- – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Haemopoeisis- – – – – – – – – 4
1.4.1 Site of haemopoeisis- – – – – – – 6
1.5 Solanum nigrum plant- – – – – – – 7
1.5.1 Nutritional Uses of Solanum nigrum- – – – – 10
1.5.2 Medicinal uses of solanum nigrum- – – – – 11
1.6 Justification- – – – – – – – – 13
1.7 Aims and objectives- – – – – – – – 13

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Classification of Anaemia- – – – – – – 15
2.2 Haemopoeisis – – – – – – – – 19
2.2.1 Site of Haemopoeisis- – – – – – – 20
2.2.2 Organisation of Haemopoeisis – – – – – – 22
2.3 Erythropoeisis– – – – – – – – 23
2.3.1 The Erythroid Progenitor Cell Compartment – – – 24
2.3.2 Terminal Maturation of Committed Erythroid Cells – – 25
2.3.3 Changes in Gene Expression In Erythroid Differentiation and Maturation- –  27
2.3.4 Regulation of Erythropoeisis- – – – – – 27
2.3.5 Erythropoetin- – – – – – – – 28
2.4 Leucopoeisis- – – – – – – – – 30
2.4.1 Neutrophil Precursor- – – – – – – 31
2.4.2 Monocytes- – – – – – – – – 32
2.4.3 Eosinophi- – – – – – – – – 34
2.4.4 Basophils- – – – – – – – – 34
2.4.5 Control of Granulopoeisis – – – – – – 35
2.5. Lymphopoiesis – – – – – – – 35
2.6 Thrombopoeisis- – – – – – – – 36
2.6.1 Thrombopoeitin- – – – – – – – 37
2.6.2 Genetics – – – – – – – – 37
2.6.3 Function and Regulation Of Thrombopoeisis – – – 38
2.7 The Regulation of Haemopoeisis – – – – – 38
2.8 Haemopoeitic Growth Factors – – – – – 39
2.9 Pharmacognistic Profile of Solanum nigrum – – – 41
2.9.1 Economic Importance of Solanum nigrum – – – 41
2.9.2 Classification Of Solanum nigrum – – – – 43
2.9.3 Taxonomy of Solanum nigrum Plant – – – – 43
2.9.4 Toxicity – – – – – – – – 44
2.9.5 Types of Solanum nigrum Plant – – – – – 45
2.9.6 Common Names Of Solanum nigrum Plant – – – 46
2.10 Pharmacology and Clinical Studies – – – – 51
2.10.1 Anti-Cancer/Clinical Studies – – – – – 51
2.10.2 Anti-Seizure – – – – – – – 51
2.10.3 Anti-Ulcer/Anti-Oxidant – – – – – – 52
2.10.4 Hepatoprotective Property – – – – – 52
2.10.5 Anti-Microbial Properties – – – – – 53
2.10.6 Anti-Inflammatory/Anti-Pyretic Properties – – – 53
2.10.7 Molluscidal/Anti-Parasitic Properties – – – – 53
2.11 Phenylhydrazine/Chemical Properties- – – – – 54
2.11.1 Chemical properties – – – – – – – 54
2.11.2 Toxicity and mutagenicity – – – – – 56
2.11.3 Haemolytic Anaemia – – – – – – 57
2.12 Mechanism at Cellular Level – – – – – 60

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Plant material Collection – – – – – – 63
3.2 Experimental animal/housing – – – – – 63
3.3 Preparation of extract – – – – – – – 63
3.3.1 Aqueous extraction of leaf – – – – – 63
3.3.2 Aqueous extraction of fruit – – – – – 64
3.4 Experimental induction of anaemia – – – – 64
3.5 Experimental design – – – – – – – 65
3.6 Sample collection – – – – – – – 66
3.7 Haemoglobin estimation – – – – – – 67
3.8 Haematocrit estimation – – – – – – 68
3.9 Red cell estimation – – – – – – – 69
3.10 Leucocyte count – – – – – – 70
3.11 Differential white cell count/thin blood film preparation – 71
3.12 Reticulocyte count – – – – – – – 73
3.13 Platelet count – – – – – – – – 75
3.14 Bone marrow count – – – – – – – 77
3.15 Determination of serum ferritin level – – – – 78
3.16 Preliminary acute toxicity testing – – – – – 80
3.17 Qualitative Phytochemical Testing and Determination of Vitamins and Minerals  – 81

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 127
Reference – – – – – – – – – 128

INTRODUCTION

Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development (Benoist et al, 2005).

Anaemia can also be defined  as a deficiency state in which there is reduced number of circulating red cells in  a person’s blood or reduction in the concentration of haemoglobin in the peripheral blood below the normal range for the age and sex of the patient.

This blood disorder occurs at all stages of life, both male and female, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children (Benoist et al, 2005).

In 2002 Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was considered to be among the most important contributing factors to the global burden of the disease.

CAUSES/AETIOLOGY OF ANAEMIA

Anaemia is the result of a wide variety of causes that can be isolated (Benoist et al, 2005) but more often it co-exists with other clinical conditions.

Iron deficiency: Globally, the most significant contributor to the onset of anaemia is Iron deficiency, so that iron deficiency and anaemia are often used synonymously (Benoist et al, 2005).

It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anaemia are due to Iron deficiency, but the proportion may vary among population groups in different areas according to the local condition.

REFERENCES

Adolfsson J., Mansson R., Buza-Vidas N., (2005). Identification of Flt 3+ lympho-myeloid stem cells lacking erthro-megakaryotic potential: a revised road map for adult blood lineage commitment. Cell. 121:295- 306

Agbor G.A., Oben J.E., Ngogang J.Y., (2005). Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4:833-837.

Almeida-Porada G., Porada C D., chamberlain J., (2004). Formation of human hepatocytes by human haematopoietic sterm cells in sheep. Blood; 104:2582-2590.

Amer J., Goldfarb A., Fibach E., (2004). Flow cytometric analysis of the oxidative status of normal and thalassemic red blood cells. Cytometry 60A:73-80.

ANL Jang J.T., and LIU X.M., (2006). Review about Mechanisms on anticancer of Solanum nigrum (Article in Chinese) zhanggo zhaiig yao za zhi, 31:1225-6.

Ashby D.R., Gale D. P., Busbridge M., Murphy K.G., Duncan N.D., Cairns T.D., Taube D.H., Bloom S.R., Tam F.W., Chapman R, Maxwell P.H., Choi P., (2010). Haematologica 95 (3): 505–508.

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