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Integrated Strategies of Crime Control in Contemporary Nigeria

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Integrated Strategies of Crime Control in Contemporary Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This study is on integrated strategies of crime control in contemporary Nigeria with Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anambra state as its study Area.

It is prompted by the need to findout not just what the residents of the Local Government Area perceive the integrated strategies to be but what on how they effective perceive them to be.

The findings of five indepth interview with the officials of the 5 key agents and institutions of crime control was triangulated with the responses of 600 randomly selected residents of the L.G.A The result of this triangulation is two folds.

The first is that the integrated strategies are of crime control are in use in controlling crime in the L.G.A. While second is that the strategies are yet to be most effective use in control crime in the L.G.A.

Responses from indepth interview and 600 questionnaire are used to reach the first conclusion while chi square non-parametric statistics is used to reach the latter one.

Thus the researcher is recommending that, the integration not only be passed into law but that it should be implemented in complete obedience to the teachings of Christ.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page————-i
Approval page—-ii
Certification page————-iii
Acknowledgements———–iv
Dedication———vi
Abstract———-vii
Table of contents——-viii
List of tables—————–x

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study————1
1.2 Statement of the Problem——-3
1.3 Research Questions————–6
1.4 Objectives of the Study———-7
1.5 Significance of the Study—7
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms—–8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Review of Theoretical literature ——-11
2.2 Review of Empirical Literature ——-17
2.3 Review of Relevant Theories ———-18
2.4Theoretical Framework —————–25
2.5 Hypotheses of the Study——–26

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

3.1 The Research Design ———-27
3.2 The Area of the Study————-27
3.3 The Population of Study————28
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques——–29
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection————31
3.6 Administration of Instrument——–32
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis—–33

CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents ————–35
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of the Thematic Questionnaire Items—–39
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses ——————68
4.4 Discussion of Findings ———-77

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary ———–81
5.2 Conclusion———82
5.3 Recommendations ———83
5.4 Limitations of the Study —–83
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies ——86
References —————–87
Appendices———-95

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 Background to the Study

Crime is a universal feature of all human societies (Marshall, 1998). The reason for this is because there is no human society where norms and values are not violated, from the simplest hunting and gathering societies to the most complex contemporary post industrial societies.

As a result, it can be said that every human society has strategies of controlling crime within its territorial boundaries (Haralambos and Healds 1980; Haralambos and Holborn, 2004; Okonkwo and Naish, 1980; Roberg and Kuykendall 1993).

According to Igbo (2006), Spector (1981) and Rubington and Weinberg (1999) only legitimate informal strategies were mainly used in pre-industrial and pre-colonial times but with industrialisation and subsequent colonialisation of non-western societies, formal strategies became not just the dominant strategy but the only legally approved means of controlling crime in most modern societies.

As a result of this, crime became ineffectively controlled in most modern societies (American Civil Liberties Union 1959; Clemner 1950; Hodges et al, 2001; Lewis, 1961; Obikeze, 1986; Schemalleger, 1997).

According to Trift and Sullivan (1980), the main reason this is so is not just because formal strategies were made the only legal means of controlling crime but because the majority of them were over-punitive but because they were over repressive and non-restorative (cited in Siegel, 2004).

Thus instead of encouraging the members of the society not to engage in actions capable of bringing them and their family shame, emphasises was shifted to making sure that those suspected to have engaged in such actions were officially punished.

REFERENCES

Aja, A. (2007). Basic concepts, issues and strategies of peace & conflict resolution African conflict case studies. Abuja: centre for international strategic studies.

Alemika, E.E. & Chukwuma I.C. (2007). Criminal victimization, safety and policy in Nigeria: 2006: Lagos: CLEEN foundation.

American Civil Liberties Union (1959). Illegal detention by police. In N. Johnson, N. Savitz & M., Wolfgang. (Ed) The sociology of punishment and correction (12-17). New York: John Wiley & Sons inc.

Anambra state of Nigeria (2006). State economic empowerment & development strategy (SEED) (2nd ed.) Awka: Office of economic planning and monitoring.

Ashworth, A. (2002). Responsibilities, rights and restorative justice. British journal of criminology 42(3) 578-593.

Becker, H. (1999). The process of social typing: Outsiders. In E. Rubington & M. Weinberg (Ed) Deviance :The interactionist perspectives (7-10) (7th ed.) Needham heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon: A Viacom company.

Best, S. G. (2006) Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books

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