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Integration of Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Practices into Nigeria Certificate in Education Agricultural Education Curriculum

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Integration of Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Practices into Nigeria Certificate in Education Agricultural Education Curriculum.

ABSTRACT

Indigenous knowledge is the experience people in a given community have developed over time and continue to develop.

Therefore, this study was designed to integrate indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Practices (IAKP) into Nigeria’s Certificate in Education Agricultural Education Curriculum.

The specific objectives were to determine; (i) the IAKP utilized by farmers in Agricultural productions, (ii) determine the objectives of IAKP to be integrated, (iii)determine the content for achieving the objectives of IAKP, (iv)determine the teaching methods that should be adopted in teaching IAKP,(v) determine the evaluation methods that should be adopted in assessing the objectives of IAKP, and (vi) determine the existing courses in which IAKP could be integrated into NCE Agricultural Education Curriculum.

The study adopted a descriptive survey design and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and was conducted in South-Eastern Nigeria. Six research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

The population of the study was 566 subjects made up of 120 aged Farmers, 361 Extension Agents, and 85 Agricultural Education Lecturers in Colleges of Education in the study area.

A total sample of 327 respondents was used for the study. This consisted of 60 farmers, 182 Extension Agents, and 85 lecturers. The instruments for data collection were a structured questionnaire and interview schedule.

The questionnaire comprised 163 items arranged in five sections (A, B, C, D, and E). Each section sought information on the specific objectives of the study respectively.

The instruments for data collection were subjected to face validation by 7 experts and the internal consistency of the instrument was established using Cronbach alpha which yielded the reliability coefficients of 0.92, 0.85, 0.88, 0.82, and 0.91 respectively for the five sections.

The questionnaire was administered through personal contact while the interview schedule was used to conduct Key Informant Interview(KII) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD).

Data for research question one were analyzed qualitatively; descriptive statistics were used to answer research questions two to six while t-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of probability.

Based on the data analyzed, the following findings were made: (i) farmers utilized IAKP in various aspects of agricultural productions; (ii) nine specific IAKP objectives for integration into NCE Agriculture Education Curriculum were determined; (iii) different teaching methods; (iv) different evaluation techniques for assessing the objectives of IAKP; and (v) existing courses in which IAKP could be integrated into NCE Agricultural Education Curriculum were determined.

Based on the findings of the study, conclusions were drawn and recommendations made which include (a) the need for proper documentation of IAKP utilized by farmers in agricultural production and integrate them into the NCE curriculum for preservation and transfer to future generations; (b) policymakers should formulate policies that will promote the adoption and utilization of IAKP, and (c) Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’S) should sponsor research on IAKP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………………………… i
APPROVAL PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………ii
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………..iii
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………….iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………….vi
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………….viii
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………x
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………..xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………..1
Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………..8
Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………10
Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………..11
Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………….12
Research Hypotheses …………………………………………………………………………………..13
Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………13

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………………………..14
The concept of indigenous knowledge and practices…………………………………………14
Indigenous knowledge and practices in 14
Crop production………………………………………………………………………………………….23
Livestock production …………………………………………………………………………………..26
Soil conservation ………………………………………………………………………………………..28
Ethno-veterinary medicine……………………………………………………………………………31
Documentation of Indigenous Agricultural knowledge and Practices…………………..38
Agricultural Education Programmes in Nigeria ……………………………………………….40
Selecting Curriculum Objectives, Contents, and Learning Experiences in
Agricultural Education…………………………………………………………………………………50
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Education…………………………………………………..53
Evaluation in Agricultural Education……………………………………………………………..63
Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………………………..73
Curriculum Development Models/Design……………………………………………………….73
Review of Related Empirical Studies …………………………………………………………..80
Summary of the Literature Review …………………………………………………………….85

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………….87
Area of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………..87
The population of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………….88
Sample and Sampling Technique …………………………………………………………………..88
An instrument for Data Collection………………………………………………………………………89
Validation of the Instrument …………………………………………………………………………90
Reliability of the Instrument …………………………………………………………………………90
Method of Data Collection……………………………………………………………………………90
Method of Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………..91

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA …………….92

Research Question 1 …………………………………..92
Research Question 2 ………………………………………98
Hypothesis 1………………………………………………….97
Research Question 3 ……………………………………………..100
Hypothesis 2…………………………………………………102
Research Question 4 …………………………..105
Hypothesis 3………………………………………………106
Research Question 5 …………………………………..108
Hypothesis 4…………………………………………….110
Research Question 6 …………………………………….112
Findings of the Study……………………………………………………114
Discussion of Findings ………………………………………..134

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Restatement of the Problem ……………………………..145
Description of the Procedure used…………………………….146
Principal findings of the Study…………………………………………147
Conclusions ………………………………………………………………..149
Implications of the Study ………………………………………………..151
Recommendations …………………………………………………..152
Limitations of the Study ……………………………………………..153
Suggestions for Further Research ……………………………………153
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………..155
APPENDICES ………………………………162

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Agriculture deals with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals to benefit mankind. In developing countries, agriculture is characterized by a fragile and difficult environment which results in low agricultural productivity (Adedipe, 1998, FAO, 1996).

Farmers utilize various systems in food production activities. It is to this third category that Nigeria agriculture belongs and is still trying to develop.

Despite the dominance of mineral oil exploitation as the current mainstay of the Nigerian economy in terms of foreign exchange earnings, the agricultural sector remains the largest industry contributing 37% of the GDP and employing 65% of the adult labor force (Falusi, 1997).

Apart from its pivotal role in meeting the food and fiber needs of a large and growing population, agriculture provides the raw materials for the agro-industrial sector and is the largest contributor to nonoil foreign exchange earnings.

According to Ultimate Reference Suite (2010), almost half of all Nigerians obtain a living from agricultural production.

REFERENCES

Adedipe, N.O. (1998). Review of field case study reports for the expert consultation on Technology Assessment and Transfer for Sustainable Agricultural Development, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Sub-Sahara Africa. In: Technology Assessment and Transfer towards Foods Security and Poverty Alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa, 415 –
430 FAO, Rome pp 447.
Adedipe, N.O. (2004). The relevance of local and indigenous Knowledge for Nigeria Agriculture. Paper Presented at the International Conference on bridging scales and epistemologies: Linking local Knowledge with Global Science in Multi Scale Assessments. Nairobi Kenya.
Adegoke, K.A. & Ajeyalemi, D. (1994). The Nature of Curriculum Development Tasks in Adegoke and Ajeyalemi (eds.) Fundamentals of Curriculum Development Lagos: NERDC Press.
African Technology Policy Studies Network (ATPS) (2002). Analysis of Indigenous Knowledge in Swaziland: Implication for sustainable agricultural Development. Agriculture in Samoa. University of South Pacific, Alafus campus
Aguilar, G (2001).Access to genetic resources and protection of traditional knowledge in the territories of indigenous people, Environmental Science and Policy (4) 4-5, August, 2001.

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