=>> CHAT Right HERE with Our Representative - Immediate Response
Management Accounting and Decision Making of an Organisation
This study examined the problems of urban flooding in Uyo urban Akwa Ibom State with view to identifying the types of flood prevalent in the study area, anthropogenic causes of flood and impacts associated with urban flood in uyo.
To this end, two research hypotheses were formulated, stratified random sampling was used to stratify Uyo into six (6) zones and questionnaires were administered.
Taro Yamane method for finite population was computed that 400 copies of questionnaires were administered in the study area as well as used in the analysis.
The first hypothesis was tested using Chi-square (x2) at 0.05 level of significance in order to otherwise if anthropogenic activities are responsible for the occurrence of flooding menace in the study area.
Also, the second hypothesis was tested using regression analysis to test for the impacts of urban flood on people. The analyses showed that anthropogenic activities account for the occurrence of urban flooding in the study area and urban flood do have significant impacts on people.
Based on these finding, it was recommended that among others that adequate drainage channels should be provided by government, good and adequate land-use should be encouraged, provision of adequate waste receptacles to discourage dumping of refuse in drainage channels and environmental education and awareness programms should be embarked upon at regular intervals to sensitize people on flood issues.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents vii
List of Table x
List of Figure xi
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Aims and Objectives of Study 7
1.5 Research Hypothesis 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Limitation of the Study 9
1.9 The Study Area 11
1.9.1 Historical Background 11
1.9.2 Location and Size 14
1.9.3 Climate 14
1.9.4 Vegetation/Land-use 16
1.9.5 Geology and Soil 16
1.9.6 Relief and Drainage 17
1.9.7 Population and Settlement 18
1.9.8 Socio-Economic Activities 18
1.10 Definition of terms 19
LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Review of Related Literature 20
2.1.1 Meaning and Types of Flood 20
2.1.2 Causes of Urban Flood 24
2.1.3 Urban Flood Impacts and Vulnerability Status 29
2.1.4 Summary of Literature Review 31
2.2 Conceptual Framework 32
2.2.1 The Concept of Urban Catchment 32
2.2.2 The Concept of Vulnerability 33
2.2.3 The Concept of Resident Flood Risk Management 36
3.1 Research Design 38
3.2 Data Needs 38
3.3 Sources of Data 39
3.3.1 Primary Sources 39
3.3.2 Secondary Sources 39
3.4 Sampling Techniques 40
3.5 Sampled Population 40
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 41
3.7 Statistical Technique 42
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 43
4.1.1 Socio-Economic Analysis of Respondents 42
4.1.2 Analysis of Socio-Economic Attributes of Urban
Flooding in the Study Area 45
188.8.131.52 Flood Experience 45
184.108.40.206 Types of Flood Experience in Uyo Urban 46
220.127.116.11 Impact of Flood in Uyo Urban 47
18.104.22.168 Forms of Flood Impact experience in Uyo Urban 47
22.214.171.124 Anthropogenic Causes of Flood 48
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses 49
4.3 Discussion of Findings 52
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 54
5.2 Conclusion 55
5.3 Recommendations 56
Urban flood is one of the hazards that affect man since time immemorial (Sada, 2004). Throughout history, nature has shown little respect for man’s unwise occupancy of watershed in humid tropical lands and elsewhere (WRC, 2009).
Flooding dates back to the Biblical days of Noah and since the pre-historical times, man has been involved in an unending struggle with natural hazards such as flood, earthquake and volcanic eruption, among others (Blazkomac, 2014).
According to Askew (2001), flooding is the most common of all environmental hazards worldwide, either induced by nature or by anthropogenic actions in the environment which has left indelible make on the landscape.
Since early times, flood has been a major aspect of man’s interaction with his environment, and scores of flood disasters are found in the traditions and literatures of many ancient people (Redijk, 2004).
In recent time, urban flood are repeatedly reported in the head lines of local national and international media because of the adverse effect it has on infrastructures. Since 1970, the world has witnessed more than ten major urban flood disaster (Allt, 2005).
In the study of Berz (2000) floods contribute about 58% of total death and 33% of economic losses and that over the period of 1988 to 1997. There was a trend of increasing number of flood events, as well as economic losses globally.
Urban flood is associated with some extreme natural events that happen on a geographical area and urban floods can have both area-wide and local origin, and are accompanied with serious environmental problems (Akintola, 2013).
Urban flood occurrence is not bound by local administrative boundaries as observed by Iyewson [2010) because storm water drainage and protection facilities are part of an urban system to channel drains. Sada (2004) opined that urban flood as an environmental hazard has caused much concern, not only to developing countries, but also to developed countries of the world.
Despite modern technology, Sada’s study further revealed that it has been impossible to completely prevent urban flood hazard. Instead man has devised various methods of controlling urban flood, though this is difficult because urban flood occurrence and their magnitude cannot be easily forecasted.
Action Aid International (2010). Event-Temesse Emergency Management Agency (TEMA): www.tnema.org/event/index.html. Retrieved 18/03/2014.
Adeleye, J. A. (1996). Effect of stream data flow record length on the accuracy of capacity estimate for direct supply reservoir. Water Resources. A Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrologist. 1(2): 48-61.
Aderoju, O. M., Egbemiro, O., Liyu, I., Mwadike, B. K., Ajnye, S. E. and Salman, K. S. (2014). Geospatial Assessment of 2012 Flood Disaster in Kogi State. Journal of Environmental Suace, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8 (2): 74-83.
Akinola, F. (2013). Flooding problems at Ibadan in Filani et al., (ed.) Ibadan: Region Press.
Akinyemi, Y. (2013) Nigeria: Expect more flood in 2013, NIMET warns. This day Newspaper, 17/02/2014. Retried on 20/03/2014.
Akmola, O. (2000). Strategies for combination urban flooding developing countries. A Case Study of Ondo. The Environmentalist 14: (57-62).
Akukwc, T. I. and Ogbodo, E. (2013). Spatial Analysis of vuluerability of flooding in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. SAGE Journals, D01:10 117712016824 41557-5338.
Al. Sabhan, W., Mulligan, M. and Blackbum, G. A. (2003) A real-time Hydrological Model for flood prediction using GIS.
Allit, R. (2005). Flood Risk Assessment. http//www.raalt.oc.uk
Amangbara, G. T. and Gabo, A. E (2009). Factors that influence the flooding of the middle and lower Ntanmagba Stream Catchments, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Environment Hydrology, 15 (27): 1-15.
Andjalkovic, I. (2015). Non-structural measures in urban flood Management. IHP-V/Technical Document in Hydrology N. 50 UNESCO, Paris pp 3-9.
Askew, A. J. (2001). Water in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. IAHS Publication N. 239.
Balogun, T. and Okoduwa, A. (2000). Application of GIS in flood risk. Nigeria Journal of Catography and GIS Mapping, 1 : 37-45.
Becker, A., and Grenewaldi, U. (2003). Flood risk in Central Europe. Science, 300; 1099-1244.
Berz, G. (2000). Flood disasters: lesson from the past worries for the future. Water and Maritime Engineering. N. 142.
Blazkomac, K. N. (2014). Influence of spreading urbanization in flooded areas on flood manage, Auton Melik Cuographical Institute. Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Slovenia.
Bolile, H. G. (2001). Vulnerability and Criticality. Perspectives from Social Geography. HID update 212002 and Newsletter of the International Human Dimension Programme on Global Environmental Change. Pp 1-7.
Brkmamn, J. (2006). Measuring vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resident Societies. Tokyo, New York: UN Press.
Brooks, N. (2003). Vulnerability, Risk and Adaptation: 17 Conceptual Framework: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich: UK. pp 20.
Buon, H. (1999) Perceptions of Flood Risk. A Case Study of the Red River Flood of 1997. Water Resources 35 (11): 3451-3458.
Cannon, T. (2000). Vulnerability Analysis in Disaster, London: Routledge, pp. 45 Centre for Neighborhood Technology (2013). The Prevalence of cost of urban Flooding. Chicago: Venimont Publishers, pp 671.
Chalix, S. R., and Khanal, N. R., (2002). Rainfall and Related Natural Disaster in Nepal: In: L. Tanchi, in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas, pp. 63-70.
Dale, V. H; Brown, S., Hacubar, R. A., Hobbs, N. T., Hurtly, N; Naiman, R. J., Reibsame, W. E., Turner, M. G., and Valone T. J. (2000). Ecological Principles and Guidelines for Managing the use of land. Ecological Application, 10; 639-670.
De Bruijn, K. M. and Klijn, F and Van, B. M. (2003). Resilience Stategies foe flood for risk management in the Netherlands. International Journal of River Basin Management 1: 33-40.
De Bruijn, K. M. and Klijn, F. (2001). Resilient Flood Risk Management Strategies. In Guifen, L. and Wensve, L. (eds) Proceeding of the IAHR, congress, September 16-12, 2001. Beiying, Chiron pp 450-457.
DEFRA (2001): Cases of flooding. http://www.defra.com
Di Maoro, B. C. (2006). Regional vulnerability map for supporting policy definitions and implementations, ARMONA Conference Multi-Hazards: Challenges for risk assessment, mapping and management, Barcelona.
Dilley, M., Chen, R. S., Deichmam, U., Lemer-Lam, A. L and Arneld, M. (2005). National Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. The World Bank, USP. 130.
Durendjik, J. (2004). Assessment of flood management options. Thematic review 4 (4): 1-25
Duru, C. (2013). Consequences of flood on occupational trip duration and flood risk assessment of Aba North LGA, Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences 1 (6): 171-186.
Dyhouse, G. (2003). Flood Modeling using HEC-RAS (first edition) Haested press. Watering (USA).
Effiong, E. O. (1998). Environmental problems in Calabar urban: The Hydrological Perspective and the human dimension. A paper presented at the 41st annual conference of the Nigerian Geographical Association, University of Uyo, 1998.
Enchyner, J. N. (2015). Lessons from a 500 year record of Flood Elevation. Association of State Flood Plan Managers.
Eni, D. I., Atu, J. E., Oko, C. O. and Ekwok, I. (2011). Flood and its impact on farmlands in Itigidi, Abi Local Government Area, cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and social Sciences, 1 (9): 98-104.
Eroflod Consulting Services (2000). Documentation of Ecological problem in Uyo LGA: A Report Submitted to Uyo LGA Council.
Falwner, R. A. and Harping, R. (2005). Catchment Flood Management: A UK Perspective and Experience: Water Resources Association.
Fekete, A. (2009). Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river flood in Germany. Natural Hazards Earth Syst. So. 9 (2): 393-403.
Floyd, P. (2005). Approaches to risk: Guidance document on flood and Coastal Defense Project (FCDP) USA.
Folke, C. (2006). Resilience, the emergency of perspective for social ecological System. Global Environmental Change, 19(2): 253-267.
Folormisho, R., and Awosika, L. (2001) Flood mitigation in Lagos, Nigeria through wise management of solid waste: a case of Ikoyi and Victoria Islands, Nigeria. Paper presented at the UNESCO-CSI Workshop, Mapito 19-23 November, 2001.
Google. (2005). Definition of flood on web.www.ajc.com/weather.
Green, C. H. (2002). Flood management from the perspective of integrated water resources management. A paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium of flood defense. Beijing, China
Gwary, D. (2008). Climate Change, food security and Nigeria Agriculture. A paper presented at the workshop on the challenges of climate for Nigeria. NISER 19-20 May, 2008.
GWP (2000). Integrated water resources management. TAC background paper 4. Stokholm Sweden.
Henry, P. (2006). Levees and other raised ground 94. American Scientist.
Hjaimerson, H. W. (2014). Flash flood in Tanque Verdee Creek, Tueson Arizona. Journal of Hydrwlic Engineering 110 (12): 1841-1852.
IFRC, (2002). Toolbox for Vulnerability and capacity Assessment disaster Preparedness. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Geneva, Switzerland.
IRTCUD-RCTS (2015). Non structural flood control in Urban areas: International workshop proceedings Related to UNESCO Project IHP- V7.1, Sao Paolo, Brasil.
Ituen, U. and Udoh, J. (2004). A GIS Based Analysis of urban encroachment into Agricultural Land in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. In Cartography, GIS Agricultural Development. A Special Publication of the NCA pp 181.
Jeb, D. N. and Aggarwal, S. P. (2008). Flood imitation hazard modeling of the River Kaduna using Sensing and Geographical Information System. Journal of Applied Science Research, 4(12): 11-13.
Jones, M. (2000). Ground-water flooding in glacial terrem of Southern Puget Sound. Washngton.
Konwea, A. C. (2012). The great Nigeria 2012 flood. Partl. Retrieved [email protected].
Kron, W. (2005). Flood in weather catastrophes and climate, is there still hope for us? Munich Re Group, pp. 122-131.
Lawrence, I., Quade, D., and Beeker, J. (2011). Integrating the effects of flood experience on Risk Perception with responses to changing climate Risk. Journal of Natural Hazard. 10,1007/511069-014-1288.
Lawrence, T., Tegg, S., Reismger, A. and Quade, D. (2011). Vulnerability and Adaptation to Increased Flood risk with climate. Hult Valley Summary. New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute.
Liverman, D. (2003). Assessment Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Environmental Hazard. 5: 47-50.
Liverman, D. (2014). Vulnerability to global environmental change. In: Kasperson, J. X. and Kasperson, R. E. eds. Global Environment Risk, Tokyo: United Nations University Press. pp 201-216.
Maksimovic, C. and Radojkovic, M. (2012). Urban drainage modelling; proceedings of the international symposium, Dubronite. Yugoslavia.
Mirza, M. M. (2003). Climate change and Extreme Weather Events: can developing countries adapt? Climate Policy 3:24-248.
Mitling, D. (2000). Cities and sustainable development: Global forum 94 Conference background document. Manchester: Great Britain.
Munich Re. (2012). Geo-natural Catastrophes 2011. Available at http://www. munichre /publications. Retrieved on 10th July, 2012.
National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) (2012). National Capacity Assessment on Emergency Preparedness and Response in Nigeria Consolidated Findings, Abuja: NEMA 2012.
Newson, M. D. (2010). Flooding and flooding hazard in United Kingdom.
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) (2012). Nigeria: Humanitarian Dashboard Flood (as at 20th November, 2012), OVHA.
Ogundele, J. A. and Jegede, A. O. (2011) Environmental Influence of Flooding on Urban Growth and Development of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Studies in Sociology of Science, 2 (2): 89-93.
Ologunorisa, E. T. (2003). An assessment of flood vulnerability zones in the Niger Delta. Nigeria-International journal of Environmental Studies. UK, 60: 1-8.
Ologunorisa, T. E and Abawau, M. J. (2005). Flood Risk Assessment: A review: Journal of Applied Science Environmental Management, 9 (1): 57-63.
Olormfemi, S. (2008). Evaluation of the relationship between urban infrastructure and climate variability. Accessed from www.cesevet.org. retrieved 03/03/2014
Olrende, B. (2009). The economic impacts of climate change in Kenya Riparian flood impacts and costs of adaptation.
Pandey, A. C., Smgh, S. K. and Nathqwart, M. S., (2010). Waterlogging and Flood Hazards Vulnerability and Risk Assessment in Indo Gevatic Plan. Natural Hazards, 1 (7): 216-287.
Pauw, K. and Thurlow, J. (2010). Droughts and floods in Malawi, assessing the economy wide effects. IFPRI discussion paper.
Pelling, M. (2003). The vulnerability of cities: National disaster and social resilience London, UK: Earthscan publication, pp 184.
Pelling, M. and Uitto, J. I. (2001) small island developing states: National Disaster Vulnerability and Global change, env. hazard. 3: 49-62.
Poscy, J. (2009). The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the Municipal level. Evidence from flood plam management programmes in the United State. Global Environmental Change. 19 (4): 482-493.
Prowse, T. D. and clup, J. M. (2003). Ice break-up. A neglected factor in River Ecology. Car.j.eng. 30: 128-144.
Reganit, M. P. (2005). Analysis of community’s coping mechanism in relation to floods: A case study of Naga city Philippnes. Msc Thesis, Enschede, the Netherlands.
Ribot, J. C. (2009). Vulnerability does not just fall from the sky: Toward Multi- Scale pro-poor climate policy, Washngton, DC: The World Bank.
Sada, F. O. (2004). Environmental issues and management in Nigeria.
Smith, K. (2004). Environmental Hazards: Assessing risk and reduction disaster. London: Rout ledge Publishers.
Suda, C. A. (2009). Natural disaster preparedness, environmental degradation and sustainable development in Kenya. Africa Study Monographs, 21 (3): 91-103.
Thepa, R. (2005). Impact of Flood Hazard and Coping Strategies: a Case Study of jagaptur Village, Nepal, Department of Geography, University of Bergen. Norway.
Twigg, J. (2001). Sustainable Livelihoods and vulnerability to disaster. Benfield Graig Hazard, Centre for the Disaster Mitigation Institute (DMI).
Twigg, J. (2004). Disaster risk deduction: Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming. Good practice review. Oversear Development Institute. Londo. UK.
Udosen, C. (2008). Gully erosion in Ikpa River Basin: a threshold phenomenon. Time communications, Lagos: Nigeria.
UNDP (2000). Reducing disaster Risk. A challenge for development United Nation Development programme : Bureau for crisis and Recovery.
UNESCO (2013). Fighting floods in Cities. Project: Training Matwerial for Disaster Reduction: Delf, Holand.
UNISDR (2002). Guideline for reducing flood losses. Available at Http://www.unisdr. org. Retrieved 29/07/2013.
Usoro E. J. (1993). The threatened earth: A synthesis of ecological perspective. Immaculate Publication, Enugu.
Usoro E. J. and Akpan, P. A. (2010) Akwa Ibom State. A geographic perspective, Enugu: Immaculate Publication.
Walker. B. C. S., Holling. S. R. Carpenter. G. H., and Kinzing, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Socio-Ecological System. Ecology and Society, 12 (1): 441-456.
Waver, M. G. F., Hunter, N. M. and Bates. P. D. (2006). Identifiability of distributed flood plan roughness values in flood extent estimation. Journal of Hydrology 314:139-157.
WRC (2009). A unified National Program for flood plan management; Washmgton: USA.
Yeou-kong. (2005). Food Defense Systems Design by rise- based approaches. Water International. 30 (1): 50-57.
Join Over 500,000+ Readers Online Now!Copyright Warning: Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.