Microbial Analysis of Toast Bread : Current School News

Microbial Analysis of Toast Bread

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Microbial Analysis of Toast Bread


The analysis of toasted bread was carried out to determine the microbial load. A total of two samples were collected from the Douglas market. The analysis was performed in the microbiology laboratory, Imo State University. From the analysis, the microbial count of the Total Heterophilic bacteria count ranges from 1.2-2.8 X106, Total coliform count ranges from 7.8-9.8 X106, TSC ranges from 1.9-2.3 X106, and Total fungi count ranges from 1.6-1.7 X106.

Further identification scheme carried out on microbial isolates showed the presence of live bacteria which are Escherichia coli., Salmonella spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Klebsiella spp. and three fungi which are Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., and Aspergillus spp. T

oast bread which is a good source of nutrients, however microbial loads above 105 tolerant limits and the presence of coliform call for concern, adequate hazard analysis, and critical control point (HACCP) measures the effective good manufacturing practice (GMP) is imperative in the production of bread.


Bread may be described as a fermented confectionary product produced mainly from wheat flour, water, yeast, and salt by a series of processes involving mixing, kneading, proofing, shaping, and baking (Dewettinck et al., 2008). The consumption of bread and other baked goods such as biscuits, doughnuts, and cakes produced from wheat flour is very popular, but the low protein content of wheat flour, which is the most vital ingredient used for the production of different kinds of baked goods has been a major concern in its utilization (Young, 2001).

However, wheat is a good source of calories and other nutrients but its protein is of lower nutritional quality when compared to milk, soya bean, pea, and lupin proteins as its protein is deficient in essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine (Bakke and Vickers, 2007; Dewettinck et al.,008; Jideani and Onwubali, 2009). The use of white flour derived from the processing of whole wheat grain, which is aimed at improving the aesthetic value of white bread, has also led to the

drastic reduction in the nutritional density and fiber content when compared to bread made from whole-grain cereals (Maneju et al., 2011). Recently, consumers’ awareness of the need to eat high quality and healthy foods – known as functional foods, that is, foods that contain ingredients that provide additional health benefits beyond the basic nutritional requirements, is increasing (Ndife and Abbo, 2009).

Therefore, the trend is to produce specialty bread 10 Baba, et al.: Sensory Evaluation of Toasted Bread Fortified with Banana Flour: A Preliminary Study made from whole grain flour and other functional ingredients known as health bread or functional foods (Dewettinck et al., 2008). The banana fruit is a healthy, nutritious commodity that contains 74%, 23% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and 0.5% fat. Without its peel, it is a good source of Vitamin B6, potassium, and fiber.


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