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Morphology Analysis of Lead Iodide- And Lead Acetate based Perovskite Layers for Solar Cell Application

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Morphology Analysis of Lead Iodide- And Lead Acetate based Perovskite Layers for Solar Cell Application.

ABSTRACT  

Organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells have shown success as light absorbers in photovoltaic cells due to their efficiency increasing from 3.5% to over 20% within only five years. However, pinhole formation and incomplete coverage of solution-processed perovskite film results in increased current leakage, reducing efficiency. Hence the surface morphology of perovskite film is important for high performance of perovskite solar cells.

Here the morphology is carefully controlled by varying processing conditions, perovskite films were prepared using two different lead sources: lead acetate (Pb(OAc)2) and lead iodide (PbI2), with methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) as the source material. The structural, optical and absorbance properties of the perovskite films varied with the lead sources used, perovskite from a Pb(OAc)2.3 H2O source annealed at 90oC gave the best structure compared to Pb(OAc)2.3H2O annealed at 80oC and anhydrous Pb(OAc)2 annealed at 90oC.

The perovskite film from the PbI2 source did not have smooth film, pinholes were formed with low crystallinity, a small amount of Pb(OAc)2 (about 5% mol) was added to the PbI2 in the solution, this improved the film crystallinity. The perovskite film derived from lead acetate showed enhanced surface coverage with quality crystalline film. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………II
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………VI
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..X
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..XI
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS………………………………………………………………………………..XII

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 BACKGROUND ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.4 OUTLINE OF THESIS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………………5
2.1 GLOBAL AND AFRICAN ENERGY NEEDS………………………………………………………………………………………5
2.2 SOLAR ENERGY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.3 PHOTOVOLTAICS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
2.4 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC………………………………………………………………………9
2.4.1 Short Circuit Current ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
2.4.2 Open-circuit Voltage…………………………………………………………………………………………………….10
2.4.3 Fill Factor (FF)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
2.4.4 Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) ………………………………………………………………………………12
2.5 EVOLUTION OF SOLAR CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………12
2.5.1 First-Generation Solar Cells………………………………………………………………………………………….12
2.5.2 Second-Generation Solar Cell ………………………………………………………………………………………13
2.5.3 Third-Generation Solar Cell ………………………………………………………………………………………….13
2.6 PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELL (PSC) ……………………………………………………………………………………………19
2.6.1 Working Principle of PSCs and Device Structure …………………………………………………………….20
2.6.2 Materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
2.6.3 Film Deposition Methods………………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.6.4 Stability of Perovskite…………………………………………………………………………………………………..28
2.6.5 Morphology PSCs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
2.6.6 Methods to Control the Morphology of PSCs…………………………………………………………………..29
2.6.7 Previous Works on Perovskite ………………………………………………………………………………………33

CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE…………………………………………………………………….36
3.1 EQUIPMENT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36
3.2 CHEMICALS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36
3.3 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD……………………………………………………………………………………………………….36
3.3.1 Lead Iodide Source Perovskite ……………………………………………………………………………………..36
3.3.2 Two-step Spin-coating Process …………………………………………………………………………………….37
3.3.3 Lead Acetate Source Perovskite……………………………………………………………………………………37
3.4 CHARACTERISATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………39
4.1 X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
4.2 ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE LIGHT (UV-VIS) SPECTROMETRY ……………………………………………………………..41
4.3 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) ……………………………………………………………………………..43

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………………45
5.1 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….45

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47

INTRODUCTION  

The growing global population and industrialisation have led to the continuous increase in demand for energy. Global energy demand is predicted to be as high as 1GW/day, which places substantial pressure on current energy infrastructures (Wang, Wright, Elumalai & Uddin, 2016). The supply of fossil fuels is consistently declining and cannot satisfy the huge energy demands in the nearest future.

These challenges, in addition to the danger of climate change, have necessitated the development of energy from renewable energy sources, which are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Among the probable renewable energy technologies, photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, which convert sunlight into electricity, provide a promising solution; solar power is the most abundant energy source in the world (Zulkifli & Bahtiar, 2016).

A year’s worth of sunlight contains 1.5 x 1018 kWh of energy; the known reserves of oil, coal and gas are 1.75 x 1015 kWh, 1.4 x 1015 kWh, and 5.5 x 1015 kWh, respectively (Sum & Mathews, 2014). A year’s worth of sunlight provides more energy than the entire known fossil fuel reserve. The challenge is to convert solar energy efficiently and cost-effectively. Photovoltaic is currently dominated by crystalline silicon solar cells, which are the most efficient solar cells available for commercial use (Bailie et al., 2015).

However, they are not cost- effective as the cost of fabrication involves pure and expensive materials, hightechnology processing techniques and high temperature processing. This makes crystalline silicon solar cells not economically viable for many applications (Jeon et al., 2014). In order to reduce the processing cost, an alternative approach is to manufacture solar modules using solution processing techniques which significantly reduce costs and the energy payback time (Chen, 2015). 

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CSN Team.

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