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Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Nigeria: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey

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Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Nigeria: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey.

 

Abstract

Poverty is profoundly endemic in many countries especially in less developed countries. In Nigeria, poverty is a reality that depicts the lack of food, clothes, education, and other basic amenities.
Severely poor people lack the most basic necessities of life to a  degree  that it can  be wondered how they manage to survive. There are several  effects  and  deficiencies associated with poverty in Nigeria.
One of the main effects of poverty  is  poor  medical services, as is reflected in Nigeria’s high infant mortality and low life expectancy.
Although a lot of studies have been done on this issue, most of them focused on uni-dimensional poverty. This study therefore examined the multidimensionality of poverty in Nigeria using the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data.
This study employed the multidimensional poverty that was adopted by the World Bank in 2005.
Multidimensional concept of poverty analysis requires identification of, and the development of some indicators of poverty unlike  the uni-dimensional approach, which only takes cognizance of  the  income  or  expenditure.
The multidimensional approach analyzes a vector of variables and attributes retained as indicators of some form of exclusion and poverty (Costa, 2002 as cited  in  Onyekale 2008).
The study also constructed a relevant poverty profile of various dimensions of poverty in Nigeria by groups and identified the correlates of various dimensions of poverty in  Nigeria.
The result revealed that approximately about 61% of people living in urban area suffer environmental poverty while about 59% suffer environmental poverty in rural  areas.
The result shows that about 62% of males suffer environmental poverty compared  to  approximately 42% females.

Table Of Contents

Title Page…………… i
Approval……………ii
Certification……..iii
Dedication………..iv
Acknowledgement(s)……….v
Abstract…………………… vi
Table of Content(s)………vii
List of Tables……………….viii
List of Figures………………… ix
List of Abbreviations……….. x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study……………………. 1
  • Statement of the Problem………………………. 7
  • Research Questions……………………….. 8
  • Objectives of the Study………………………… 8
  • Research Hypothesis………………………. 9
  • Scope of the Study……………………. 9
  • Justification for the Study……………… 9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Conceptual Framework………………… 11
  • Theoretical Approach to Poverty……………. 12
    • Uni-dimensional Approach…………… 13
    • Multidimensional Approach……………….. 13
    • Poverty Caused by Geographical Disparities………… 15
  • Theoretical literature Review………………… 15
    • The Functionalist Theory…………………. 15
    • Radical and Marxist Theory………………….. 16
    • Social Exclusion Theory……………….. 16
  • Empirical Literature……………………………… 18
    • Global Empirical Literature……………………… 18
    • Empirical Literature on Nigeria……………. 22
  • Summary of Empirical Literature……………….. 26
  • Limitations of the Previous Studies and value added…….. 31

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND DATA

  • Analytical Framework…………………… 32
  • Construction of Composite Poverty Index……………….. 33
  • Estimation of FGT Poverty Index…………………… 33
    • Applying Additive Decomposable Poverty Measures……… 34
  • Estimation of the Correlates of Multidimensional Poverty……….. 35
  • Data Required and Sources…………….. 37

CHAPTER FOUR: EMPIRICAL RESULTS

  • Evaluation and interpretation of Research Findings…….. 38
  • Decomposition of Living Environment Poverty across sector, gender of head, age, region, household  size,  religion and education groupings……… 40
  • Decomposition of nutritional poverty across sector, gender of head, age, region, household size, religion and education groupings……… 42
  • Decomposition of Health poverty across sector, gender of head, age, region, household size, religion and education groupings…………….. 43
  • Decomposition of Asset Poverty across sector, gender of head, age, region, household size, religion and education groupings…………….. 45
  • Decomposition of violence Poverty across sector, gender of head, age, region, household size, religion and education groupings………. 46
  • Correlates of Multidimensional Poverty Estimates………….. 47

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

  • Major Findings and Summary………. 59
  • Policy Recommendations……………59
  • Conclusion…………. 61

REFERENCES

Introduction

Background Of Study
The poverty problem in Nigeria has been noted to be a growing  phenomenon  and  has  widened its breadth and depth in the past few decades embracing more comprehensive conceptualizations.
Multidimensional poverty has captured the attention of researchers and policy-makers alike, to the compelling conceptual writings of Sen (1985) and the  unprecedented availability of relevant data. (Alkire and Foster, 2008).
According to Sen’s (1985, 1992, 1999) theory of capabilities, there is unanimity about the Multidimensional Conception of Poverty and others whose arguments have essentially reshaped  the  way we  think about poverty,
going beyond the notion of economic well-being embedded in the traditional approaches (uni-dimensional measure). Poverty is profoundly endemic in many countries especially in less developed countries.
In Nigeria,  poverty is  a  reality that  depicts the lack of food, clothes, education, and other basic amenities. Severely poor people lack the most basic necessities of life.
There are several effects and deficiencies associated  with  poverty in Nigeria. One of the main effects of poverty is poor medical services, as is reflected  in Nigeria’s high infant mortality and low life expectancy.
Poor  people  in  Nigeria  face several medical issues as they lack basic health amenities and  competent  medical  practitioners.
Most children do not have the opportunity of being immunized and this leads to certain physical defects in some of the children, they live with whatever  they are  provided with, whether healthy or not.
The key factors that contribute to poverty in Nigeria as cited in Ucha (2010) are: unemployment, especially among young graduates, corruption, especially among political office holders, non-diversification of the economy,  income  inequality, laziness, especially among those who come from wealthy households, and a poor educational system.

References

Aigbokhan B.E (1999), Poverty, growth and  Inequality in Nigeria: A          Case     Study, AERC Research Paper. 102
Aigbokhan, B.E (2000), Determinant of Regional Poverty in Nigeria.      Research      Report No. 22, Development Policy, Central Ibadan,              Nigeria.
Akinbobola, T.O & M.O. Saibu (2004). Income Inequality, Unemployment, and Poverty in Nigeria: A Vector Autoregressive   Approach; Policy Reform.    Vol. 7(3), pp.  175- 183.
Alkire,  S.  & Foster, J. (2008). Counting and Multidimensional poverty measurement, oxford poverty and  human development initiative,           working          paper series. No. 38, oxford.
Alkire,  S & Santos, M.E (2010). Acute Multidimensional poverty: A  New Index          for Developing Countries. OPHI working paper, No. 38.
Aluko  (2012). Multidimensional Poverty and        Multiple Correspondence     Analysis.

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