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Multidimensionality of Poverty in Nigeria: A Fuzzy Set Approach

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Multidimensionality of Poverty in Nigeria: A Fuzzy Set Approach.

ABSTRACT  

The study examines the multidimensional aspect of poverty and living condition in Nigeria. The aim is to fill the vacuum that has been left by traditional unidimensional measures of deprivation based on poverty lines, exclusively estimated on the basis of monetary variables such as income or consumption expenditure. It combines monetary and non-monetary, qualitative and quantitative indicators, including housing conditions, the possession of durable goods, with a number of composite human welfare measures.

The study employs the fuzzy-set theoretic framework to know other poverty correlates; weather poverty has regional characteristics and occupational characteristics using 2003/2004 Nigeria living standard survey. Three null hypotheses were formulated and tested. They were rejected based on the significant level of the variable’s coefficients, using Z statistics at 1 percent and 0.1 percent level of significance.

The result of estimate shows that there are other major correlates of poverty, besides income/consumption expenditure in Nigeria; that poverty has both regional and occupational characteristics. Based on the recommendation, government should encourage education as a right not a privilege; and make agriculture a lucrative venture through mechanizing the sector, training and retraining of personnel’s in practice. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ——————————————————————— i
Certification —————————————————————- ii
Dedication ——————————————————————- iii
Acknowledgement ———————————————————- iv
Table of Contents ———————————————————— v
List of Tables —————————————————————- vii
Abstract ———————————————————————- viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study ———————————————- 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems ——————————————— 4
1.3 Objective of the Study ————————————————- 5
1.4 Statement of Working Hypotheses ———————————– 5
1.5 Justification of the Study ———————————————- 6
1.6 Scope / Limitation of the Study ————————————- 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Literature ————————————————– 8
2.1.1 Poverty Definitions ————————————————– 8
2.1.2 Poverty Theories —————————————————– 9
2.1.3 Nigeria an Overview ————————————————- 16
2.1.4 Poverty Profile for Nigeria —————————————— 18
2.1.5 The Millennium Development Goal (MDG ONE) ————— 21
2.2 Empirical Literature ————————————————— 21
2.3 Limitations of the Previous Studies ———————————- 27

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Theoretical Framework ———————————————— 29
3.2 Model Specification ————————————————— 30
3.2.1 Dichotomous Variables ——————————————— 30
3.2.2 Discrete Categorical Variables ————————————- 34
3.2.3 Continuous Categorical Variables ——————————— 35
3.3 Model Justification —————————————————– 36
3.4 Data required and Sources ——————————————– 37
3.5 Econometric Software ————————————————– 39

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
4.1 Consumption Expenditure using Poverty Line ———————- 40
4.2 Poverty Correlates in Nigeria —————————————— 41
4.3 .0 Evaluation of Hypotheses ——————————————- 49
4.3.1 Test of Hypothesis One ———————————————- 49
4.3.2 Test of Hypothesis Two ———————————————- 49
4.3.3 Test of Hypothesis Three ——————————————– 50

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, POLICY RECOMMENDATION AND
CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Results —————————————————- 51
5.2 Policy recommendations ———————————————– 51
5.3 Conclusion ———————————————————– 53
Bibliography ————————————————————- 54

INTRODUCTION  

Poverty problem in Nigeria is actually noted to be a growing phenomenon. However, unlike some African countries where the high prevalence of poverty can be attributed to their low profile of natural endowment; the Nigeria position is indeed a surprise. This is because despite the fact that the country is rich in oil, in fact biggest oil producer in Africa, yet it is ranked 159 out of 177 countries (UNDP, 2006) and considered one of the 20 poorest countries in the world, where 70 percent of the population is classified as poor with 35 percent living in absolute poverty.

The situation hence was captioned by World Bank (1996) as poverty in the midst of plenty. In many developing countries, poverty is concentrated among people with certain level of deprivations which includes poor housing conditions, low education or without education, unstable employment/unemployment, low and unstable income, low status job, absence of savings and the likes.

This is one of the most deplorable disabilities that can afflict a person or a nation. Society as a whole has been alarmed by this phenomenon of growing poverty; without shadow of doubt, the problem of poverty in Nigeria remains a clog in the wheels of progress so desired by the nation’s citizens. But as bad as the scourge is, the effects-violence, kidnapping, terrorism, armed robbery and the likes, have been noted to be much worse, and inhibit the nation’s growth and development.

Nigerian economy faces enormous challenges and a bleak future if fundamental steps are not taken to redress the legacies of the past, (Monoeconomy-undiversified Nigerian Economic Structure, lack of policy coherence, misallocation and mismanagement of resources-corruption and weak institution) the prediction being, with the existing trend of poverty, poverty worsens, engulfing as much as 80 percent of the population by 2030 (NEEDS, 2005). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Achime, N.H. and Afemikhe, O.A. (1997); “Health and Education Issues in Poverty
Alleviation: Macroeconomic Policies” in Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria, NES,
Ibadan, Nigeria Pp. 255 – 268.
Aigbokhan, B.E. (1997), “Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: Some Macroeconomic
Issues”. In Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria, NES, Ibadan, Nigeria Pp. 181 – 210.
Aigbokhan, Ben. E. (2000), Determinant of Regional Poverty in Nigeria – Research
Report No. 22, Development Policy Centre Ibadan, Nigeria.
Amelia Bastos, C. Marchado (2009), Child Poverty: A Multidimensional Concept of
Child Poverty. International Journal of Social Economics Vol: 36, Issue 3, ISSN:
0306-8293.
Anurag, S. And R. Jha (2003), The Spatial Distribution of Rural Poverty in the Last
Three Quinquennial Rounds of NSS. Working Paper No 2003-03 Research
School Of Pacific & Asian Studies Australian National University.
Arinze, A.I. (1995), Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: policy options. Bullion publication
of the Central Bank of Nigeria; vol 19 No 2.
Asselin; L. and Vu Tuan Anh (06/06/09), Multidimensional poverty and multiple
correspondence Analysis. http://www.auf.org/IMG/pdf/Louis-Marie-Asselin.Pdf.
Ayala, L. Antonio, J., Jesus, P. (2009), Income poverty and Multidimensional
Deprivation: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis, Working paper ECINEQ
WP 2009-106.
Betti, G., A. D’ Agostino, L. Neri, (2002), Panel Regression Models for Measuring
Multidimensional Poverty Dynamics. Statistical Method and Application vol. II,
Number 3.

CSN Team.

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