Needs Analysis of the National Diploma Programme in Electrical/Electronic Engineering Curriculum in Preparing Students for Employment in North-West, Nigeria
Needs Analysis of the National Diploma Programme in Electrical/Electronic Engineering Curriculum in Preparing Students for Employment in North-West, Nigeria.
This study was a needs analysis of National Diploma in electrical/electronic curriculum in preparing students for employment. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and posed six research questions and formulated four hypotheses to guide the study.
The population for the study consisted of 1023 respondents made up of 142 electrical/electronic teachers, 622 ND II electrical/electronic students, 134 industry-based supervisors, and 125 employed ND electrical/electronic graduates.
No sampling was conducted as the entire population of 1023 respondents was used in the study. Six instruments were used for data collection.
The curriculum content appraisal questionnaire (CCAQ), made up of two sections, was a five-point rating scale used to obtain information on the relevance and adequacy of the ND electrical/electronic curriculum content.
The reliability coefficients of this instrument were 0.76 and 0.95, (Cronbach alpha (α)) for sections one and two respectively.
The electrical/electronic subject matter test (EESMT) was a 100-item multiple choice tests administered on technical teachers to obtain information on the teachers’ subject matter knowledge. Its reliability coefficient was 0.92 using K-R 21.
Information on the practical competence of electrical teachers was obtained using the electrical teachers practical competence scale (ETPCS). This instrument has two sections. The coefficient of internal consistency for section one was 0.97 (α) and the inter-rater reliability for section two was 0.76 (Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W)).
The electrical teachers pedagogical skill scale (ETPSS) was used to observe and rate teachers’ pedagogical skills during lesson presentations. Its reliability coefficient was 0.81 (W).
Data on available facilities and equipment available at the polytechnics were obtained using the electrical facilities and equipment check-list (EFECL). Information on SIWES implementation was obtained using the students’ industrial work experience scheme implementation scale (SIWESIS). It has a reliability coefficient of 0.83 (α).
Five experts drawn from the university, polytechnic, and industry validated each of the instruments. The study was conducted in nine Polytechnics and 134 electrical services related industries located in the North-West zone of Nigeria.
The data collected were analyzed using mean and percentage, while the hypotheses were tested using Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, and ANOVA.
Some of the findings of the study included small gaps in curriculum content; large gaps in theoretical knowledge and moderate gaps in practical and pedagogical skills among teachers; and an extremely large gap in availability of training materials and equipment for the teaching of ND electrical/electronic course, among others.
Results from the hypotheses indicated no significant difference on subject matter knowledge, practical competence, and pedagogical skills between technical teachers of federal and those of state polytechnics, among others.
Some of the recommendations proffered include the intensification of long and short term staff training to improve the quality of teachers.
The need for technical teacher training institutions and engineering faculties of universities to ensure that their training curricula reflect the need of employers, and especially the need of the curricula of other lower training institutions like the polytechnics.
So that their graduates would be better prepared to handle the training needs enshrined in those curricula, and the need for the polytechnics to explore other sources of funding, such as through endowments, and establishing contacts with companies, NGOs, International Agencies, Alumni, and philanthropists for financial, material, and equipment donations to augment their learning resources.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xiii
LIST OF FIGURES xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 9
Significance of the Study 10
Theoretical Significance 12
Research Questions 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 16
Conceptual Framework 16
Needs Analysis 17
Curriculum Content 21
Electrical Services Industry 29
Teacher Competence 35
Teachers’ Subject Matter Knowledge 38
Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills of Teachers 40
Practical Skills of Teachers 50
Improving Teacher Effectiveness 53
Instructional Materials and Equipment 66
Skill mismatch and Skills Need of Employers 70
Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme 96
The Schema 110
Theoretical Framework 112
Systems Theory 112
Discrepancy Theory 114
The Theory of Constructivism 116
Situated Learning Theory 119
Andragogy Theory 121
Related Empirical Studies 124
Summary of Review of Related Literature 131
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 133
Design of the Study 133
Area of the Study 133
Population for the Study 134
Sample and Sampling Technique 134
Instruments for Data Collection 135
Validation of the Instruments 138
Reliability of the Instruments 139
Method of Data Collection 141
Method of Data Analysis 142
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 147
Research Question 1 147
Research Question 2 153
Research Question 3 157
Research Question 4 165
Research Question 5 169
Research Question 6 171
Hypothesis 1 174
Hypothesis 2 177
Hypothesis 3 181
Hypothesis 4 186
Research Findings 187
Discussion of Findings 200
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 208
Re-statement of the Problem 208
Re-statement of Purpose of the study 209
Summary of Procedure adopted 209
Major Findings 211
Implications for the Study 213
Limitations of the Study 218
Suggestions for Further Research 218
1.1 Background of the Study
The National Diploma (ND) in electrical/electronic engineering technology is a two year post secondary technical education that is provided in Nigerian polytechnics.
It is designed to produce electrical/electronic engineering technicians for the manufacturing, assembling, servicing, power generation, transmission, distribution and utilization, telecommunications and other related industries (National Boaard for Technical Education (NBTE), 2003).
The programme consists of four main components which include general education, foundation courses, professional courses, and Supervised Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES).
Teaching and evaluation of professional courses are undertaken by technical teachers that consist of lecturers and instructors, whose minimum academic qualifications are university Degree and higher national diploma, respectively.
Guidelines on admission of students into the programme, teaching and learning techniques, evaluation procedure, conditions for graduation, personnel requirement, teaching facilities and equipment needed, and requirement for accreditation are contained in the curriculum.
A curriculum is a plan that guides the teachers on the various teaching/learning activities to be carried out in a given programme.
It is an educational plan that spells out which goals and objectives should be achieved, which topics should be covered, and which methods are to be used for learning, teaching, and evaluation (Wojtczak, 2002).
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