Patients' Perception of Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Tuberculosis : Current School News

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Patients` Perception of Etiology, Prevention and Treatment for Tuberculosis

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Patients’ Perception of Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment for Tuberculosis.

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is described as a global emergency and it is found more in developing countries. For this reason, a descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among TB patients seen at District Hospital Enugu Ezike, Enugu State.

The objectives of the study were: to assess the level of knowledge of the respondents about the cause of tuberculosis, to assess the level of knowledge of preventive practices on tuberculosis among the respondents and to assess the level of knowledge of community treatment facilities among the respondents.

Methods:

This was a study among 360 patients in District Hospital Enugu Ezike in Enugu state. Designed questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about their perception of cause, prevention and treatment for TB.

Results:

About 56.7% of the respondents were not aware of the cause of TB. 44.4%  of the respondents got knowledge about TB through the health workers.

Up to 83.3% of the patients could mention at least one sign or symptom of TB correctly. Also, 71.7% of the respondents stated that TB could be prevented by proper disposal of sputum while 68.9% were aware that sneezing and coughing without covering the nose and mouth enhance the spread of TB.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page — — — — — — — — — — i
Declaration — — — — — — — — — — ii
Certification — — — — — — — — — iii
Dedication– — — — — — — — — — iv
Acknowledgment– — — — — — — — — v
Table of Contents- — — — — — — — vi
List of Tables– — — — — — — — — — viii
Abbreviations– — — — — — — — — — x
Abstract– — — — — — — — — — — xi
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction– — — — — — — — — 1
1.1 . Background to the study 1
1.2. Statement of the problem 4
1.3. Purpose of the study 5
1.4 General objectives — — — — — — — — 5
1.5 Specific objectives — — — — — — — — 5
1.6 Null hypotheses 6
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review 7
2.1 Perception of tuberculosis — — — — — — 7
2.2 Empirical studies — — — — — — — — 10
2.3 Risk factors — — — — — — — — 16
2.4 Pathophysiology 17
2.5 Age and sex — — — — — — — — — 18
2.6 Morbidity and mortality — — — — — — — 19
2.7 Transmission 19
2.8 Reservoir of infection — — — — — — — — 20
2.9 HIV and TB — — — — — — — — 20
2.9.1 Bacteriology of TB — — — — — — — — 21
2.9. 2 Signs and symptoms — — — — — — — 22
2.9.3 Diagnosis of tuberculosis — — — — — — — 23
2.9.4 Treatment for tuberculosis — — — — — — — 24
2.9.5 Treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis — — — — — 26
2.9.6 Treatment for latent TB — — — — — — — 26
2.9.7 Drug side effects — — — — — — — — 27
2.9.7 Complications — — — — — — — — — 27
2.9.8 Prevention — — — — — — — — — 28
CHAPTER THREE
Methods 30
3.1 Study area — — — — — — — — — 3 0
3.1.2 Location– — — — — — — — — — 30
3.1.3 The people—- — — — — — — — — 30
3.1.4 Education– — — — — — — — — — 31
3.1.5 Health services– — — — — — — — — 32
3.2 Study design– — — — — — — — — 32
3.3 Sample size determination 33
3.4 Inclusion criteria 33
3.5 Exclusion criteria — — — — — — 33
3.6 Sample size and sampling technique 34
3.7 Study instrument and Validation– — — — — — 34
3.8 ethical clearance 35
3.9 Data collection — — — — — 35
3.9.1 Plans for data management 36
3.9.2 Limitations of the study 36
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Data analysis and results — — — — — — — 37
Section A: Background information about the respondents 38
Section B: Responses to the research instrument 44
Hypotheses tested 63
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion, Summary and recommendations 67

References– — — — — — — — — — 75
Appendices 85
Questionnaire — — — — — — — — — 85
Ethical approval 92

Introduction

Tuberculosis is a common and often serious infection caused by  mycobacterium tuberculosis1. It is mainly an infection  that attacks the lungs  but it can also affect the bones, spine, kidneys etc. It is spread through the air, when people who have an active infection cough, talk, sneeze or sing2.

The majority of tuberculosis infections are asymptomatic and latent but one in ten latent cases do progress to active disease if it is left untreated.

The case fatality of an untreated active tuberculosis disease exceeds 50%3. One third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with tuberculosis and new infections occur at a rate of one per second. Throughout the world in 2007, there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic active cases of tuberculosis.

In 2010, there were 8.8million new cases and 1.5 million estimated deaths mostly occurring in developing countries4, 5. 350,000 people who die of active tuberculosis are co-infected with HIV6.

Tuberculosis is the second most common cause of death from  infectious disease after HIV7. Since 2005, the number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing slowly especially in more advanced countries. The number of new cases has also decreased since 2008.7, 8

REFERENCES

Kumar Y, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN. Robins basic Pathology. 8th Saunders Elservier. 2008.

Konstatinos A. Testing for Australian prescriber. 33(1) 2010. 12-18pp.

World Health Organization. Tuberculosis fact sheet No 104. 2010. [Internet] (cited       8/4/14).       Available       from:  netlibrary: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheet/fs104/en/index.html.

World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy and financing. Geneva, Switzerland. 2009, 6-33

World health organization. Global TB control: Epidemiology, strategy, and financing. Geneva Swizerland.2009. 6 – 33 .

World Health Organization. The sixteenth global report on tuberculosis. Geneva, Switzerland. 2011. (Internet) (cited 8/4/14). Available from Netlibrary:

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