Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil Using Kenaf Plant : Current School News

Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil Using Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) Plant

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Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil Using Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) Plant.

ABSTRACT  

Contamination of existing and potential agricultural lands is a major problem associated with the processing and distribution of crude and refined petroleum products in many oil producing countries like Nigeria. Hydrocarbon contaminants in soil are potentially phytotoxic to plants and can interfere with plant establishment and growth as well as other potential land uses.

Pollution control strategies involving physico-chemical methods are usually expensive and have often aggravated the problem rather than eliminate it. Phytoremediation is recently being favoured as a good option for the remediation of polluted sites and has proven to be a better alternative; hence there is the need to identify various plants especially native ones with potential for the phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soils.

The objectives of this study were to plant Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) in a three media of simulated diesel polluted soil samples – soil amended with compost (Sample A), soil amended with fertilizer (Sample B) and unamended soil (Sample C); monitor the rate of reduction of TPH in the soil samples; determine pollutant concentrations in the plant parts and; and to identify the medium most suitable for the effective breakdown of hydrocarbons in the contaminated soils. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. viii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x

CHAPTER 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11
1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
1.1 Problem Statement ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1.2 Objectives of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1.3 Project Justification ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
1.4 Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

CHAPTER 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
2.1 Oil, Petroleum Hydrocarbons and their Effects on Soil…………………………………………………. 16
2.2 Methods of Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Soils ……………………………………………………. 18
2.2.1 Physical and chemical remediation…………………………………………………………………….. 18
2.2.2 Biological remediation……………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.3 Bioremediation of Organic Polluted Soil…………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.4 Phytoremediation: A Plant-Assisted Bioremediation Mechanism………………………………….. 21
2.4.1 Mechanisms of hydrocarbon phytoremediation…………………………………………………… 22
2.4.1.1 Phytostabilisation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.4.1.2 Phytodegradation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
2.4.1.3 Phytovolatiliation ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
2.4.1.4 Rhizoremediation ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
2.4.2 Environmental considerations in phytoremediation……………………………………………… 26
2.4.3 Key performance index in phytoremediation ………………………………………………………. 29
2.5 Comparison of Phytoremediation to Alternative Remediation Strategies……………………….. 29
2.6 Plant Selection in Phytoremediation …………………………………………………………………………. 30
2.7 PHC Contamination in Developing Countries………………………………………………………………. 32

CHAPTER 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS …………………………………………………………………………………………34
3.1 Hydrocarbon Contaminant and Soil Samples………………………………………………………………. 34
3.2 Experimental Procedure ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.3 Baseline Parameters……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
3.4 PHC Phytoremediation Index …………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.5 Laboratory Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.5.1 TPH analysis of soil by infra-red method……………………………………………………………… 35
3.5.2 Determination of pH………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
3.5.3 Moisture content analysis…………………………………………………………………………………. 36
3.5.4 Determination of total nitrogen by Kjeldahl method…………………………………………….. 37
3.5.5 Determination of available phosphorus ……………………………………………………………… 37
3.6 Statistical Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38

CHAPTER 4 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………39
4.1 Baseline Data of Contaminated Soil ………………………………………………………………………………39
4.2 Remediation of PHC soil samples………………………………………………………………………………….39
4.3 Predicting TPH Reduction in Soil Samples………………………………………………………………………42
4.4 Absorption of PHC by Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant ………………………………………………44

CHAPTER FIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………………………46
5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46
5.2 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………………………………………….46

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………59

INTRODUCTION  

Soil is a fundamental and irreplaceable natural resource which provides a variety of ecosystem services and is the essential link between the components air, bedrock, water and biota that make up our environment. Contaminated land is defined as sites having levels of contaminants present in the soil that pose a significant possibility of harm to the ecosystem (DEFRA, 2009). There are a significant number of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted sites across the world resulting from a wide range of past industrial, military, and petroleum production, and distribution practices (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Series, 1998).

The chemical composition of petroleum products is complex and varied and changes over time and distance when released to the environment (Bellmann & Otto, 2003). Oil pollution in soils can cause interference with the ecosystem and in most cases causes the non-productive use of land. The European Commission (2002; 2006a; 2006b) has identified soil contamination as one of eight major threats to European soils. Contaminants can enter the soil from points (local) and diffuse sources (DEFRA, 2009).

It is not easy to estimate the costs of the soil contamination in terms of rehabilitating and restoring due to the lack of sufficient quantitative and qualitative data, but studies have pointed out that soil contamination results in great costs to society (European Commission, 2006c). Global industrialization over the past centuries has resulted in widespread contamination of the environment with organic and inorganic wastes. Contaminated land has generally resulted from industrial activities connected with the production, use, and disposal of substances potentially hazardous to the environment.

REFERENCES

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CSN Team.

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