Quantification of The Polyphenolic Constituents of Samples of Red Wine. : Current School News

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Quantification of The Polyphenolic Constituents of Retail Samples of Red Wine

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Quantification of The Polyphenolic Constituents of Retail Samples of Red Wine.

ABSTRACT  

The study sets out to investigate the amount of some selected classes of polyphenols with cardiovascular benefits, present in red wine. The total phenolic content of the freshly opened red wine samples as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau Method (FCM) were in the range of 42-1625 mg/l Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) (Mean = 1084.6).

Samples J and N, which were of Spanish and Portuguese origins, respectively, contained the highest concentration of 1625 mg/l GAE each, while the lowest concentration was recorded in sample C, a wine of Nigerian origin. Similarly, the total anthocyanin concentration of freshly opened wine samples was in the range of 20.5-166.7 mg/l Malvidin-3-Glucoside Equivalents (Mean = 109.4), with sample R (an American wine) containing the highest concentration.

The total tannin concentration was in the range of 225-2387 mg/l Epicatechin Equivalents (Mean = 1653.1). Wine Q, a South African wine, had the highest concentration of tannin. The effect of air exposure resulted in a time-dependent decline in the total phenolic concentration of the wines, with the decline being more pronounced after 60 mins of air exposure.

Red wine samples with lower phenolic concentrations were found to be less affected by the reduction in total phenol due to air exposure. The maximum loss in the total phenolic concentration on-air exposure was recorded in sample S (a Spanish wine), whose phenol content decreased by as much as 87.4% after 120 mins.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vi
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – xi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Wine – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.1.1 Classification of Wine- – – – – – – – – 3
1.1.1.1 Table Wines – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.1.1.2 Sparkling Wine. – – – – – – – – – – 5
1.1.1.3 Fortified Wines – – – – – – – – – – 6
1.1.2 The Wine Grapes and Vineyards – – – – – – – 7
1.2 Red Wine- – – – – – – – – – – 10
1.2.1 Red Wine Styles and Varieties- – – – – – – – 11
1.3 Phenolics- – – – – – – – – – – 13
1.3.1 Polyphenols- – – – – – – – – – 13
1.3.2 Grape and Red Wine Phenolics- – – – – – – – 16
1.3.4 Monomeric Flavonoids and Non-Flavonoids- – – – – – -16
1.4 Anthocyanins- – – – – – – – – – – 18
1.4.1 Anthocyanins in Red Wine- – – – – – – 21
1.4.2 Pyranoanthocyanins and Related Pigments in Wines- – – – – 22
1.5 Tannins and Proanthocyanidins- – – – – – – – 23
1.5.1 Tannins in Red Wine- – – – – – – – – 27
1.5.2 Tannin Astringency and Texture- – – – – – – – 28
1.5.3 Tannins and Longevity of red Wine- – – – – – – 28
1.6 Health Benefits of Red Wine- – – – – – – – – 29
1.7 Cold storage, Aging and Oxidation- – – – – – – 33
1.8 Aim and Objectives- – – – – – – – – 35
1.8.1 Aims of the Study- – – – – – – – – – 35
1.8.2 Specific Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – – 35

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Materials- – – – – – – – – – – 36
2.1.1 Wines and Wine Sampling Procedure- – – – – – – – 36
2.1.2 Instruments/Equipment- – – – – – – – – – 36
2.1.3 Chemicals/Reagents- – – – – – – – – 37
2.2 Methods- – – – – – – – – – 38
2.2.1 Experimental Design- – – – – – – – – – 38
2.2.2 Preparation of Reagents- – – – – – – – – 39
2.2.3 Determination of Total Phenolics in Red Wines Using the Folin-Ciocalteu Micro Method (FCM) – – – – – – – – – 41
2.2.3.1 Principle- – – – – – – – – – – – 41
2.2.3.2 Procedure- – – – – – – – – – 41
2.2.4 Determination of Total Anthocyanin in Red Wines. – – – – – 42
2.2.4.1Procedure- – – – – – – – 42
2.2.5 Determination of Total Tannins in Red Wines using the Methyl Cellulose Precipitable (MCP) – – – – – – – – 42
2.2.5.1 Principle- – – – – – – – – – 42
2.2.5.2 Procedure- – – – – – – – – – – 43
2.2.6 Organoleptic (sensory) Analysis- – – – – – – – 45
2.2.7 Statistical Analysis- – – – – – – – – 48

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1 Quantification of the total phenolic content of freshly opened samples of brands of wines (Alcoholic and non-alcoholic). – – – – – – – 49
3.2 Quantification of the total anthocyanin content of freshly opened samples of brands of wine- – – – – – – – – – – 51
3.3 Quantification of the total tannins of freshly opened samples of brands of wines. – – – – – – – – – – – – 53
3.4 Effect of air exposure on the concentration of the total phenols of red wine samples- – – – – – – – – – – -55
3.5 Effect of air exposure on the concentration of the total anthocyanin content of red wine samples- – – – – – – – – – – 57
3.6 Effect of air exposure on the concentration of the total tannin of red wine samples – 59
3.7 Percentage decrease in the concentration of total phenolic, total anthocyanin, and total tannin content in the wine samples on exposure to air- – – – 61
3.8 Average loss of total phenolic, total anthocyanin, and total tannin on-air exposure in red wine at the end of two (2) hours – – – – – – – 64
3.9 Effect of cold storage between 5-80 C on the total phenolic concentration of wine samples- – – – – – – – – – 65
3.10 Effect of cold storage between 5 – 80 C on the total anthocyanin concentration of wine samples- – – – – – – – – – – 67
3.11 Effect of cold storage between 5-80 C on the total tannin concentration of wine samples- – – – – – – – – – – 69
3.12 Percentage decrease in the concentration of total phenolic, total anthocyanin, and total tannin in the wine samples on cold storage between 5-80
3.13 Average loss of total phenolic, total anthocyanin, and total tannin concentration
on storage between 5 – 80 C in red wine at the end of 96 hours – – – 74
3.14 Sensory test based on the UC Davis 20 point scale- – – – – 75
3.15 Observed correlation between the total phenolic concentration and sensory test – 77
3.16 Observed correlation between the total tannins concentration and sensory test – 79
3.17 Correlations between the total phenolic concentration and retail price- – 81
3.18 Correlation between the total tannin concentration and retail price- – 83

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Discussion- – – – – – – – – – – 85
4.2 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – – – 92
4.3 Suggestions/Recommendations for Further Studies- – – – – 92

REFERENCES 

INTRODUCTION  

Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate wine consumption has a beneficial effect on health. Wine consumption reduces the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation which is important for the prevention of arteriosclerosis development (Harborne and Williams, 2000; Heim et al., 2002).

The practice of wine consumption has a favorable influence on the reduction of cancer incidence and on chronic inflammatory diseases, the development of both being associated with oxygen-free radicals (Scalbert et al., 2005). This has gained more awareness through the famous “French Paradox” which observed low death rates resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD) despite a high intake of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat (Renaud and de Lorgeril, 1992).

The more remarkable health-promoting effect of wine in comparison to alcohol alone (in addition to other factors) is due to some biologically active compounds, present especially in red wine. Among alcoholic beverages, red wine has been reported to be more protective against coronary heart disease than other alcoholic beverages (Gronbaek et al., 1995). 

REFERENCES

Adams, D. (2006). Phenolics and ripening in grape berries. ASEV 2005 phenolics
symposium. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 57, 249-256. cv
Agüero, C. B., Meredith, C. P., and Dandekar, A. M. (2006). Genetic transformation of Vitis
vinifera L. cvs Thompson seedless and chardonnay with the pear PGIP and GFP encoding genes. Vitis, 45, 1–8.
Alcalde-Eon, C., Escribano-Bailón, M.T., Santos-Buelga, C. and Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. (2004). Separation of pyranoanthocyanins from red wine by column chromatography. Analitical Chimica Acta, 513, 305–318.
Aradhya, M. K., Dangle, G., Prins, B. H., Boursiquot, J. M., Walker, M. A., Meredith, C. P. and Simon, C. J. (2003). Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape. Vitis vinifera L. Genetic Research Cambridge, 81, 179–192.
Atanasova, V., Fulcrand, H., Cheynier, V. and Moutounet, M. (2002). Effect of oxygenation on
polyphenol changes occurring in the course of wine-making. Analytica Chimica Acta, 458, 15–27.
Australian wine research institute (AWRI) (2006). Methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay standard operating procedure. Technical reviews, 164, 1-5
Bakker, J. and Timberlake, C. (1997). Isolation, identification and characterization of new colour table anthocyanins occurring in some red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 35-43
Bertrand, A. (2003). Brandy and cognac – armagnac, brandy and cognac and their manufacture (pp. 584–601). Oxford, UK: Academic Press.
Bertsch, C., Kieffer, F., Maillot, P., Farine, S., Butterlin, G., Merdinoglu, D. and Walter, B. (2005). Genetic chimerism of Vitis vinifera cv. chardonnay 96 is maintained through organogenesis but not somatic embryogenesis. Biomedicne Central Plant Biology, 5, 20.
Bouquet, A., Torregrosa, L., Iocco, P., and Thomas, M. R. (2006). Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).
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CSN Team.

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