Refining of Palm Kernel Oil to Benefit the Nigeria Economy : Current School News

Refining of Palm Kernel Oil to Benefit the Nigeria Economy

Refining of Palm Kernel Oil to Benefit the Nigeria Economy.

ABSTRACT

This work studied the refining of crude palm kernel oil derived from the kernels within the nut of a palm fruit. This research project was aimed at reducing the non-glycerides present in oil in their crude form using an alkali method of refining.

The crude palm kernel oil was first washed with distilled water by heating  the  mixture  in  an  electric  heater  for  about  2  hours  to reduce  the  impurities  present  in  the  oil  in  their  crude  form, degummed  with  phosphoric  acid  and  neutralized  with  NaOH (caustic  soda).

The saponification value, iodine value and acid value was analyzed and their values are: for crude palm kernel oil, 33.1, 695.45 and 746.13 respectively, for neutralized palm kernel oil, 11.22, 725.6 and 687.24 respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -i

Title page – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         ii

Certification –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -iii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -iv

Acknowledgement –    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -v

Abstract –   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -vii

Chapter One

1.1   Introduction –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -1

1.2    Background Of The Study –   –        –        –        –        –        -1

1.3    Statement Of Problem –        –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.4   Aims/Objective of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        -4

1.5   Scope of the Study –     –        –        –        –        –        –        -5

Chapter Two

2.0    Literature Review –       –        –        –        –        –        –        -6

2.1    Vegetable Oils –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -8

2.1.1 Classification of Fats and

2.1.2 Characteristics of oil Classes Lauric Acid Group –      10

2.1.3. Uses of Vegetable Oil –        –        –        –        –        –        12

2.2 Method of Extraction of Vegetable Oil –    –        –        –        13

2.2.1 Hydraulic or Mechanical Press Extraction       –        –        13

2.2.2 Solvent Extraction / Leaching: –     –        –        –        –        15

2.2.3 Factors Affecting the Rate Of Leaching – –        –        –        17

2.4    Methods of Refining Of Crude Palm Kernel Oil –       –        19

2.4.1 Chemical / Alkali Refining-   –        –        –        –        –        19

2.4.2 Physical Refining –        –        –        –        –        –        –        20

2.4.3 Aim Of Refining – –       –        –        –        –        –        –        21

2.5 Origin Of Oil Palm (Palm kernel Oil) –        –        –        –        22

2.5.1 Palm Oil Processing Unit Operations –   –        –        –        25

2.5.2 Kernel Recovery –         –        –        –        –        –        –        26

2.5.3 Principles of Preservation –   –        –        –        –        –        27

2.6 Methods of Treatment – Crude Palm Kernel Oil – –      –        28

2.6.1 Degumming Treatment –      –        –        –        –        –        28

2.6.2 Bleaching Treatment –  –       –        –        –        –        –        29

26.3. Deodorizing Treatment –       –        –        –        –        –        31

2.7 Fractionation of Palm Kernel Oil –    –        –        –        –        33

2.7.1 Dry Fractionation –      –        –        –        –        –        –        34

2.7.2 Detergent Fractionation –     –        –        –        –        –        35

2.7.3 Solvent Fractionation – –       –        –        –        –        –        35

2.7.4 Palm Kernel Oil Fractionated Products –          –        –        –        36

Chapter Three

3.0    Methodology –   –        –        –        – 38

3.1 Research design — –        –         -38

3.2 Research setting — –        38

3.3 Instrument for data collection –39

3.3.1. Material — –        –        –        -39

3.3.2 Equipment –        –        –        –        -39

3.3.3 Reagents – –         –        –        –        -40

3.3.4 Preparation of Reagents –     –        -40

3.4     Refining Procedure –   –        –        -41

3.4.1  C.P.K.O and Distilled Water – –      -41

3.4.2 C.P.K.O and Phosphoric acid –        -41

3.4.3 C.P.K.O and NaOH (caustic soda) – -41

3.4.4 N.P.K.O and Distilled Water – –      -42

3.5 Characterization of P.K.O –       –        42

3.5.1  Physical Characterization –  –        -42

3.5.2   Chemical Characterization –  –      -43

Chapter Four

4.0    Results and Discussion –        –        -46

4.1    Results –     –        –        –        –        -46

4.4    Analysis Table – – – – – – – –              48

4.5    Discussion of Results – — – –             50

Chapter Five

5.1   Conclusion –         –        -52

5.2   Recommendation –       -52

References –          –        -55

Appendixes –         –        -56

INTRODUCTION

Palm kernel oil, the second most consumed lauric acid group oil   is   derived   from   the   dried   kernels   of   the   oil palm, ElaeisGuinensis. Palm  kernel  oil (co-product  of  palm  oil)  and  coconut  oil comprises less than 5 percent of the total natural fats and oils, but they  are  important  feed  stocks  of  the  oleo chemical  industry.

Coconut oil is commercially a major source of lauric acid, together with palm kernel oil and to small extent babassu oil. It belongs to the so called lauric oils, which are characterized by their high lauric oil content of approximately 50 percent.

The lauric oils are highly desirable materials in the oleochemical industry world-wide because of the important of the lauric fraction especially in the manufacture of soap and detergents.

REFERENCES

ASA,R. and AOC,S. (2003).Hand book of palm kernel oil processing.London : AVI publishing company.

Breck, G. S. and Bhatia S. (2005).Handbook of industrial fats and oils.Volume 1,2,3 and 4.New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.

Lands,W. (2003). “Current views of Nutrilization aspects of linolenic Acids”. Dorking :Tradeship publication Ltd. Perry, R.H (1998). Chemical Engineer’s Handbook.
5thEdition.U.S.A: Edward Arnold Publisher Ltd.

Pryde, E.H. (2008).Hand book of palm kernel oil processing and utilization. U.S.A: Edward Arnold Publisher Ltd.

Mendham, R.C. Denny, J. D. Barnes, M. J. andThomas, K. (2004). Vogels Textbook of quantitative chemical analysis. Sixth Edition.New York:McGraw-Hill.

Reigel,E.H. (1998). Handbook of Industrial Chemistry.New York: Goel Publishing Hours

CSN Team.

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