Religious Orientation, Locus of Control and Learned Helplessness.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of religious orientation and locus of control on the psychological phenomenon called learned haplessness. Six hundred (600) new entrant students into the Diploma in Applied Psychology programme of the University of Jos participated in the study.
The study utilized the experimental design. Word anagram was used to induce and assess learned helplessness. It was hypothesized that, 1.participants who were externally controlled will likely experience more helplessness than those that were internally controlled; 2.
That learned helplessness experience will likely be the function of the religious orientation of the participants; 3.that the interaction of locus of control and religious orientation will likely have a significant effect on learned helplessness.
That learned helplessness experience will likely be’ the function of the experimental condition of the participants. The results of the study showed that, locus of control or religious orientation alone had no significant effect on learned helplessness.
However, the interaction of religious orientation and locus of control had a statistically significant effect on learned helplessness (F (1,418) =5.326, P=.022). Experimental conditions also had a significant effect on learned helplessness F (1, 418) =77.01 0, P =0005.).
A novel finding was also made. That religious affiliation also had a statistically significant effect on learned helplessness (F (2,418) =5. 702, P=.004).
Since none of the independent variable (religious orientation or locus of control) alone had any significant effect on learned helplessness, the implication is that a multi-modal approach is required to deal with the issue of learned helplessness.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: – — —— i v
DEDICATION: ——– vii
TABLE 0F CONTENT: ——- vii i
LIST 0F TABLES: —— xv
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY——1
1.2 THE NATURE AND THE STRUCTURE OF PARADIGM: – – ——— 6
1.2.1 Objectivity versus Subjectivity: —— 8
1.2.2 Divergence and Convergence Approach: ——10
1.3 PARADIGM SHIFT: ——–12
1.3.1 Need for Paradigm Shift: -15
1.4 DEFINATION OF CONCEPTS—16
1.4.1 Locus of Control————17
1.4.2 Religious 0rientation ——-21
1.4.3 Learned Helplessness: —23
1 .4. 4 Attribution Formulation: —- 25
1.4.5 Hopelessness Reformulation—-26
5.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK——28
1.6. STATEMENT OF PROBIEM—- 30
1.7 MAJOR OBJECTIVE —–32
1.8 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ———–32
1. 9 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY: 33
1.10 SCOPE OF THE STUDY — 34
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 DEBATES AND PERSPECTIVES ON THE PLACE AND VALUES OF RELIGION IN THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY——-36
2.1.1. Proponents of the Values of Religion in Psychology——–~———37
2.1.2. Opponents of the Values of Religion in Psychology—————-38
2.2 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS RESEARCH———— -41
2.3 RELIGIOUS 0RIENTATI0N RESEARCH: ———45
2.4 RELIGION AND MENTAL HEALTH: —— 48
2.5. RELIGION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING:————– 51
2.6. LOCUS OF CONTROL AND LEARNED HELPLESSNESS——–52
2.7 HUMAN EXPERIENCES AND LEARNED HELPLESSNESS———53
2.8 SUMMARY OF THE REVIEW——–54
2.9. STUDY HYPOTHESES: —– 54
CHAPTER THREE MET HOD
3.1 PILOT STUDY——–56
3.1.3. Instrument: ——- 56
3.1.4 Procedure: ———5 6
3.2. MAIN STUDY —-57
3.2. 1 Participants ————— 5 7
3.2.2. Instruments ——59
3.2.3 Design: ———–64
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
4.1. RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY: ——–70
4.1.1. Reliability: ————-70
4.1.2. Validity: ——–72
4.2 RESULTS OF THE MAIN STUDY———— 77
4.2.1 Frequency Distribution of Study Variables ——–79
4.2.2 Post Hoc for Significance Resu1ts:————–95
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION
5.1 DISCUSSION OF PILOT STUDY RESULTS ———102
5.2. DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN STUDY RESULTS —104
5.2.1 Hypothesis One: ———–104
5.2.2. Hypothesis Two——105
5.2.3. Hypothesis Three——-106
5.2.4 Hypothesis Three——107
5.2.5 Conclusion: ————–1 08
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the years, researchers have been concerned about the effects of certain psychological variables on common human conditions and problems (Peterson, Colvin, and Lin, 1992, Mikulincer, and Nizan, 1988, Malute, 1995).
Common psychological problems such as anxiety, stress, depression etc., frequently undermine the resolve of humanity to achieve certain desired goals.
Many psychological investigations are centered mainly on the buffering effects of attributions, cognitive styles and locus of control (Meguigan, 1995, Young and Allen, 1992) on common human conditions and problems.
Of recent, interest has shifted towards investigating the moderating roles of religious beliefs and practices on the common psychological problems (Herrler and Cohen, 1998).
Religion is therefore gradually gaining ground in psychological investigations because of the role it plays in the daily functioning of the believer (Shafranske, 1996).
Even from sociological perspective, religion has shown to have effect on human decisions, choices and actions (Giddens, 2002).
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