Studies on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated : Current School News

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Studies on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Liquid Herbal Preparations Sold in Minna Metropolis

Filed in Current Projects, Microbiology Project Topics by on September 10, 2021

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– Studies on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Liquid Herbal Preparations Sold in Minna Metropolis –


A total of one hundred and fifty (150) Herbal Medicinal samples were collected from 3 local governments in the Minna metropolis. Bacteriological analysis of the liquid samples was carried out for the isolation of bacteria using standard methods.
Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from these products, the isolates were evaluated for Total aerobic plate count, Gram’s reaction, Biochemical reaction, and preservatives employed.

Also, the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates to selected antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc diffusion method and their multiple antibiotic resistances (MAR) index was calculated.
Bacterial contamination was found in 67.33% of the samples. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected more frequently than other species i.e Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Bacillus firmus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In total, two hundred and four (204) bacteria were recorded. The aerobic plate count result showed the highest count of 108 in thirteen (8.7%) samples, 107 in forty-seven samples, and no bacterial count was recorded in forty-nine (32.7%) of the samples.
The effects of preservatives were determined. The Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates showed some varying degrees of resistance. At least, 98.3% of the isolates had a MAR index of 0.3 and above.
The bacterial isolates in this study were found to be generally resistant to the readily available cheap and often abused antimicrobial agent, which is an indication that they originate from an environment where antibiotics are frequently used.


Background of Study
Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are becoming increasingly popular (Fisher and Ward, 1994; Brevoort, 1998; Eisenberg et al., 1998). Herbal medicine, also called phytomedicine or botanical medicine refers to the use of any plant’s part: seeds, roots, leaves, barks, flowers, fruits, etc. for medicinal purposes (Chavez and Chavez, 2000).
Medicine, in several developing countries, using local traditions and beliefs, is still the mainstay of healthcare. According to Hoareau and DaSilva (1999), the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Plants with medicinal properties popularly refer to as a gift of mother nature to mankind are in use for centuries in the traditional system of medicines like Ayurveda, Unani, traditional Chinese medicines, etc. in India and other countries of the world for the treatment of diseases.
They are considered to be effective and non-toxic. They have vast potential but are only partly explored by modern methods (Murphy et al., 1996). An estimated 80% of the world population still
depends on traditional herbal medicines for their health security (Carter, 2001; WHO, 2002). In most African countries, herbal medicine is recognized as an important component of the health care system especially among rural dwellers that constitute about 70% of the population (Esimone et al., 2002).
In Nigeria, there appears to be an overwhelming increase in public awareness of the usage of herbal medicinal products in the treatment and/or prevention of diseases.
This may not be unconnected with the active mass media advertisement embarked upon by the producers and marketers of the herbal medicinal products who have taken the advantage of the relatively high cost of the conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms.


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Adeleye,I.A., Okogi, G. and  Ojo,  E.O.  (2005).  Microbial  contamination  of  herbal  preparations in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 23 (3): 296- 297.
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Anonymous (2003). Microbiological Limit of herbal medicinal products. British pharmacopoeia. (Vol.4). the stationary office, London: Appendix XIVD.

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