Studies on Brucellosis in Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria : Current School News

Studies on Brucellosis in Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria

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– Studies on Brucellosis in Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria –


A serological and bacteriological study of Brucella infection in cattle was carried out in Jigawa State Nigeria in order to determine the seroprevalence, identify isolates and assess factors responsible for the introduction, maintenance, and spread of the Brucella infection in cattle herds in selected Local Government Areas of Jigawa State.
The study employed the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination test (SAT) as screening tests and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) as a confirmatory test.

Brucella organisms were isolated using cultural methods and biochemical tests were used to identify Brucella species. Milk Ring (MRT) and Whey Agglutination tests (WAT) were used to screen milk samples.
Questionnaires were used to identify the presence of exposure factors to Brucella species. From the results of the study, 93 (4.98%), 83(4.44%), and 68(3.64%) out of the 1867 serum samples were positive with RBPT, SAT, and CFT tests respectively.
There was a strong degree of agreement between the screening and the confirmatory tests as indicated by the Kappa value of 0.926 0.846 and 0.827.
Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in the study herds indicated that 30 out of the 147 herds sampled were positive using RBPT, SAT, and CFT tests, with an individual animal prevalence (IAP) ranging from 0 to 18.6% and a within-herd prevalence (WHP) from 0 to 57.14% based on the CFT tests.
The overall herd prevalence in the study based on the confirmatory test was 20.40 % (30/147). The results of Milk samples screened by MRT and WAT tests showed that 0.5% (5/869) and 0.72% (2/274) tested positive with the two different tests respectively.
The results also showed that the prevalence of Brucella infection was higher among female cattle 3.4% (70/2053) than males 0.52% (5/957) in all the study herds.


Background of Study
Livestock plays a crucial role in the livelihood of the majority of Africans including the citizens of Nigeria (JARDA, 2010). It is one of the main sources of meat, milk, draught power, and cash income.
It also plays an important role in the socio-cultural traditions of many African settings (McDermott and Arimi, 2002).In Jigawa State, livestock and poultry are mainly kept by small to medium scale farmers in the semi-arid regions of the State (JRI, 2003).
Livestock production sectors are defined into three categories as small, ranging from 1 to 30 animals, medium 31 to 50 animals and large, more than 50 animals based on a total number of cattle, goats, and sheep (Livestock Committee Report, 2013).
Several documented bacterial diseases which are directly and indirectly transmitted occur commonly in Africa and are poorly controlled in both livestock and human populations (McDermott and Arimi, 2002; Smits and Cutler, 2004).
These diseases such as brucellosis have a great socio-economic impact leading to low production due to abortion, reduced milk production, and loss of draft power, which ultimately have negative effects on cash income (Smits and Cutler, 2004).


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